Explainable Artificial Intelligence (XAI) for Increasing User Trust in Deep Reinforcement Learning Driven Autonomous Systems

Druce, J., Harradon, M., Tittle, J. 33rd Conference on Neural Information Processing Systems (NeurIPS 2019), Vancouver, Canada We consider the problem of providing users of deep Reinforcement Learning (RL) based systems with a better understanding of when their output can be trusted. We offer an explainable artificial intelligence (XAI) framework that provides a three-fold explanation: […]

An Ecologically Founded Design for a Targeted Non-Lethal Predator Aversion Device to Protect Agassiz Desert Tortoises from Depredation

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Kingsley, C., and Jenkins, M. The 2019 Desert Tortoise Symposium, Tucson, AZ (February 2019) Desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii), currently listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act (ESA), are experiencing depredation at unprecedented and unnatural rates due to the growing presence of human-subsidized predators in desert tortoise habitat, namely ravens (Corvus corax) and coyotes (Canis […]

Enhancing Situational Awareness through Perceptual and Cognitive Acclimation to Augmented 360-Degree Visual Fields

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Kingsley, C., Wollocko, A., and Jenkins, M. Special Augment Event at Interservice/Industry Training, Simulation and Education Conference (I/ITSEC), Orlando, FL (to be presented in December 2019) Charles River Analytics is developing a system to enhance situational awareness (SA) by extending humans’ natural field of view (FOV), roughly 120°, to a real-world, 360° FOV. Our system provides a […]

A Human Factors Approach to Networked Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality Interactions with Physiologically-Driven Believable Agents

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Kingsley, C. and Jenkins, M. 2019 Applied Human Factors and Ergonomics (AHFE) International Conference, Washington, DC (July 2019) Charles River Analytics has been leading numerous research and development efforts within the Virtual Reality (VR), Augmented Reality (AR), and Mixed Reality (MR) domains, collectively Extended Reality (XR), including an exploration of the human factors considerations for […]

An Extended Reality (XR) SDK to Foster Development of Realistic XR Simulations Through Naturalistic Control and Dynamic Virtual Environments

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Kingsley, C., Duggan, D., and Jenkins, M. 73rd Department of Defense Human Factors Engineering Technical Advisory Group Meeting (DoD HFE TAG), Aberdeen, MD (April 2019) Among the multitude of training techniques the DoD employs, virtual simulation continues to grow due to its ability to more closely emulate real-world contexts. However, these high-fidelity virtual simulations also often […]

Supporting a Rapidly Advancing Industry: Ensuring XR Utility and Usability Through Software Development, Human Factors Research, and Novel Applications

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Kingsley, C., Duggan, D., and Jenkins, M. 73rd Department of Defense Human Factors Engineering Technical Advisory Group Meeting (DoD HFE TAG), Aberdeen, MD (April 2019) While the extended reality (XR) industry – collectively augmented reality (AR), mixed reality (MR), and virtual reality – rapidly progresses, essentially reinventing the very definition of these terms with the introduction […]

A Toolkit to Help Integrate Humans with Virtual Environments, Intelligent Simulations (FSMs), and Artificial Cognitive Systems (NPCs)

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Kingsley, C. and Jenkins, M. Proceedings of the 2019 Intelligent Human Systems Integration (IHSI) International Conference, San Diego, CA (February 2019) Charles River Analytics is developing an open-source, Unity-based Extended Reality (XR) SDK for development of immersive simulations, currently focused on medical simulations. Our work-to-date has focused on integrating humans into virtual environments through enhanced […]

Bot Detection: Will Focusing on Recall Cause Overall Performance Deterioration?

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Nazer, T.1, Davis, M.1, Karami, M.1, Akoglu, L.2, Koelle, D.3, and Liu, H.1 International Conference on Social Computing, Behavioral-Cultural Modeling & Prediction and Behavior Representation in Modeling and Simulation (SBP-BRiMS), Washington, DC (July 2019)  Social bots are an effective tool in the arsenal of malicious actors who manipulate discussions on social media. Bots help spread misinformation, promote political […]

Targeting Separate Specific Learning Parameters Underlying Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Can Improve Perceptual Judgments of Anger

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Lynn, S.1, Bui, E.2, Hoeppner, S.2, O’Day, E.3, Palitz, S.3, Barnett, L.4, and Simon, N.5 Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, Volumne 65 (2019) Background and objectives: Anxiety disorders are characterized by biased perceptual judgment. An experimental model using simple verbal instruction to target specific decision parameters that influence perceptual judgment was developed to […]

Neutral Face and Complex Object Neurophysiological Processing Deficits in Long-Term Schizophrenia and in First Hospitalized Schizophrenia-Spectrum Individuals

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Salisbury, D.1, Krompinger, J.2,  Lynn, S.3, Onitsuka, T.2, and McCarley, R.2 International Journal of Psychiatry, Volume 140 (2019) Background: Face processing is impaired in long-term schizophrenia as indexed by a reduced face-related N170 event-related potential (ERP) that corresponds with volumetric decreases in right fusiform gyrus. Impairment in face processing may constitute an object-specific deficit in schizophrenia that relates […]

Cognitive Task Analysis Methods in Envisioned Tactical Command Decision Making

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McGeorge, N., Kane, S., and Muller, C. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 63, Issue 1, Pages 262-266 (November 2019) The battlespace is a volatile and complex environment in which tactical commanders face cognitively challenging responsibilities, compounded with the increased complexity of emerging cyber warfare. It is critical that tactical commanders gain adequate situation […]

Bot Detection: Will Focusing on Recall Cause Overall Performance Deterioration?

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Nazer,T.H.1, Davis, M.1, Karami, M1, Akoglu, L.2, Koelle, D.3, and Liu, H.1 Presented at the 2019 International Conference on Social Computing, Behavioral-Cultural Modeling, & Prediction and Behavior Representation in Modeling and Simulation (SBP-BRiMS), Washington, DC (July 2019) Social bots are an effective tool in the arsenal of malicious actors who manipulate discussions on social media. Bots […]

Probabilistic Programming: Past, Present, and Future

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Pfeffer, A. Invited keynote at the 22nd International Conference on Information Fusion (Fusion 2019), Ottawa, Canada (July 2019)  Overview: What is Probabilistic Programming? Probabilistic Programming in Action Probabilistic Programming Inference Algorithms Probabilistic Programming for Long-Lived AI Systems Download Slides For More Information To learn more, contact Avi Pfeffer. (Please include your name, address, organization, and the […]

Software Adaptation for an Unmanned Undersea Vehicle

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Pfeffer, A.1, Wu, C.1, Fry, G.1, Lu, K.1, Marotta, S.1, Reposa, M.1, Shi, Y.2, Satish Kumar, T.2, Knoblock, C.2, Parker, D.3, Muhammad, I.3, and Novakovic, C.3 IEEE Software, Vol. 36, No. 2 (March/April 2019) Unmanned undersea vehicles (UUVs) are designed to carry out challenging missions in changing environments. To maximize their effectiveness, these vehicles should adapt to system failures […]

How to Develop New Biosignals Based Products: PLUX Approach to Design New Products Based on Human Biosignals

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Plux Wireless Signals and Bracken, B. Access to human physiological, neurophysiological, and behavioral signals (biosignals) can revolutionize health solutions, scientific research across multiple fields, and everyday interaction between the digital and human worlds (e.g., through the internet of things, “smart” technologies, smartphone apps). One of the earliest capabilities to extract biosignals from humans were ECG recordings. Since then technology […]

Combining Data‐Driven and Theory‐Driven Models for Causality Analysis in Sociocultural Systems

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Sliva, A.1, Neal Reilly, S.1, Blumstein, D.1, and Pierce, G.2 In Social-Behavioral Modeling for Complex Systems, Paul K. Davis, Angela O’Mahony, and Jonathan Pfautz (Eds) To better understand and describe sociocultural systems, it is critical that we can create, analyze, and validate social, political, and economic models that capture causal and predictive dynamics. Causality is, however, notoriously difficult […]

Privacy Preserving Neural Network Inference on Encrypted Data with GPUs

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Takabi, H.1, Podschwadt, R.2, Druce, J.3, Wu, C.3, and Procopio, K3. Presented at Privacy in Machine Learning, NeurIPS 2019 Workshop, Vancover, BC (December 2019) Machine Learning as a Service (MLaaS) has become a growing trend in recent years and several such services are currently offered. MLaaS is essentially a set of services that provides machine […]

Designing Federated Architectures for Multimodal Interface Design and Human Computer Interaction in Virtual Environments

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Thiry, E., Wollocko, A., Kingsley, C., Flowers, A., Bird, L., and Jenkins, M. 2nd International Conference on Human Systems Engineering and Design: Future Trends and Applications (IHSED 2019), Munich, Germany (September 2019) Advances in 3D immersive environments offer great potential for collaboration in circumstances that rely heavily on 3D visual models for collaboration, coordination, and data visualization (e.g., construction, medical, […]

Evaluation of an AI System Explanation Interface

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Tittle, J.1, Niehaus, J.1, Druce, J.1, Harradon, M.1, Roth, E.2, and Voshell, M.1 14th International Naturalistic Decision Making Conference, San Francisco, CA (June 2019) Designing effective explainable artificial intelligence (XAI) systems represents a fundamental challenge for trusted and cooperative human machine collaboration. In this paper we describe the development and evaluation of an explanation interface that addrresses some […]

Physiological Indices of Challenge and Threat: A Data-Driven Investigation of Autonomic Nervous System Reactivity During an Active Coping Stressor Task

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Wormwood, J.1, Khan, Z.2, Siegel, E.3,  Lynn, S.4, Dy, J.2, Barrett, K.2, and Quigley, K2. Psychophysiology (August 2019) We utilized a data‐driven, unsupervised machine learning approach to examine patterns of peripheral physiological responses during a motivated performance context across two large, independent data sets, each with multiple peripheral physiological measures. Results revealed that patterns of […]

Psychological Impact of Mass Violence Depends on Affective Tone of Media

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Wormwood, J.1, Lin, Y.2, Lynn, S.3 4, Barrett L.4 5, and Quigley, K.4 6 PLOS ONE 14(4): e0213891 (April 2019) Exposure to media coverage of mass violence has been shown to predict poorer mental health symptomology. However, it is unknown whether such media coverage can have ubiquitous effects on average community members, extending to biological and […]

Use of a Portable Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) System to Examine Team Experience During Crisis Event Management in Clinical Simulations

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Xu, J.1, Slagle, J.2, Banerjee, A.3, Bracken, B.4, and Weinger, M.5 Frontiers in Human Neuroscience (05 March 2019) Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the utilization of a portable functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) system, the fNIRS PioneerTM, to examine team experience in high-fidelity simulation-based crisis event management (CEM) training for anesthesiologists in operating rooms. Background: Effective […]

Applications of Virtual Environments in Human Factors Research and Practice

Spain, R.1, Goldberg, B.2, Khooshabeh, P.3, Krum, D.3, Biro, J.4, Linder, C.4, Stanley, L.4, Tredinnick, R.5, Ponto, K.5, Gisick, L.6,  Pierce, M.6, Keebler, J.6, Young, P.6, Hancock, A.7, Phillips, J.7, Steinhauser, N.8, Niehaus, J.9, and Flynn, J.10 Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 2019 Annual Meeting (November 2019) Virtual reality, augmented reality, and other […]

Application of the DeepSense Deep Learning Framework to Determination of Activity Context from Smartphone Data

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Bracken, B., Manjunath, S., German, S., Monnier, C., and Farry, M. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 63, Issue 1, Pages 792-796 (November 2019) Current methods of assessing health are infrequent, costly, and require advanced medical equipment. 92% of US adults carry mobile phones, and 77% carry smartphones with advanced sensors (Smith, 2017). […]

Validation of a Physiological Approach to Measure Cognitive Workload: CAPT PICARD

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Bracken, B.1, Leather, C.1, E.V. Cross II.2, Stephenson, J.3, Greene, M.4, Lancaster, J.5, Munson, B.6, Holden, K.2 Human Mental Workload: Models and Applications. H-WORKLOAD 2019. Communications in Computer and Information Science, vol 1107. Springer, Cham (October 2019) This study validated a physiological workload tool during an investigation of information integration impacts on performance of a […]

Spatial Degradation of Color Discrimination in Augmented Reality

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Flowers, B. A., Wollocko, A., Kingsley, C., Thiry, E., and Jenkins, M. 10th International Conference on Applied Human Factors and Ergonomics (AHFE 2019), Washington D.C. (July 2019) Stereoscopic Augmented Reality displays are known to degrade the color perception of users. Using a spatially-aware color matching task, we performed a repeated trial study in which participants […]

Machine Learning-Enabled Adaptation of Information Fusion Software Systems

Fry, G.1, Samawi, T.1, Lu, K.1, Pfeffer, A.1, Wu, C.1, Marotta, S.1, Reposa, M.1, Chong, S.2 2019 22th International Conference on Information Fusion (FUSION) Real-time control systems must fuse information from multiple sensors to perform mission tasks in dynamic environments. The volatility of these environments can cause sensor degradation or failure, reducing the accuracy and […]

Exploring Extended Reality as a Simulation Training Tool Through Naturalistic Interactions and Enhanced Immersion

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Duggan, D.1, Kingsley, C.1, Mazzeo, M.2, and Jenkins, M.1 International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction: Virtual, Augmented and Mixed Reality Applications and Case Studies, Orlando, FL (June 2019) Augmented reality (AR), mixed reality (MR), and virtual reality (VR) technologies – collectively extended reality (XR) – have been discussed in the context of training applications since their […]

Quantitative Assessment of Image Quality for Maritime Surveillance Applications

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Eaton, R.1, Gingrich, I.1, and Irvine, J.2 SPIE Defense + Commercial Sensing, Baltimore, MD (May 2019) Analysis and measurement of perceived image quality has been an active area of research for decades. Although physical measurements of image parameters often correlate with human perceptions, user-centric approaches have focused on the observer’s ability to perform certain tasks with the […]

Using Sociocultural Data from Online Gaming and Game Communities

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Guarino, S., Eusebi, L., Bracken, B., and Jenkins, M. In Social-Behavioral Modeling for Complex Systems, Paul K. Davis, Angela O’Mahony, and Jonathan Pfautz (Eds) (April 2019) This volume describes frontiers in social-behavioral modeling for contexts as diverse as national security, health, and on-line social gaming. Recent scientific and technological advances have created exciting opportunities for such improvements. However, […]

Characterizing the Limits of Visual Field Augmentation in Augmented Reality: Psychophysical Foundations for Design and Mode Transition Acclimation Strategies

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Jenkins, M., Kingsley, C., and Flowers, B.A. Panel Presentation at the 22nd Annual Applied Ergonomics Conference, New Orleans, LA (March 2019) The impact of augmented reality displays on the human perceptual system will vary across headsets. Because of this, the display used for any solution should be selected with an awareness of the interaction between the […]

Modeling Framework Used to Analyze and Describe Junctional Tourniquet Skills

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Bauchwitz, B.1, Curley, T.1, Kwan, C.2, Niehaus, J.1, Pugh., C.2, and Weyhrauch, P.1 Military Medicine, Volume 184, Issue Supplement 1, Pages 347–360 (March-April 2019) Medical educators have acknowledged the importance of simulation training in developing procedural skills. While simulation training in other disciplines has benefitted from evaluations of users’ skill acquisition, the majority of medical training […]

A Computer-Based Tutor to Teach Nursing Trauma Care that Works as an Adjunct to High Fidelity Simulation

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Garrison, C.1, Ritter, F. E.2, Bauchwitz, B.3, Neihaus, J.3, and Weyhrauch, P.3 Presented at the 19th Annual International Meeting on Simulation in Healthcare, San Antonio, TX (January 2019) Introduction: Educators are challenged to prepare nurses to care for low volume, high acuity clinical problems such as trauma. It is difficult to provide learners with hands-on practice without compromising the quality of […]

Validation of the fNIRS Pioneer™, a Portable, Durable, Rugged functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) Device

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Bracken, B., Festa, E., Sun, H., Leather, C., and Strangman, G. International Special Session on Real-world Assessment of Individuals During Everyday Routines (RAIDERS) at BIOSTEC 2019, Prague, Czech Republic (February 2019) Assessing cognitive workload using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) in labs is well established. However, fNIRS sensors useful during normal activities in real-world environments are […]