Evaluation testbed for ATD performance prediction (ETAPP)

Ralph, S., Eaton, R., Snorrason, M., Irvine, J., and Vanstone, S. Proceedings of SPIE Defense & Security, vol. 6566, Orlando, FL (May, 2007). Automatic target detection (ATD) systems process imagery to detect and locate targets in imagery in support of a variety of military missions. Accurate prediction of ATD performance would assist in system design […]

Implications of Cyber Warfare

Saunders, T. (Chair), Levis, A. (Vice Chair), Boehm-Davis, D., Chen, P., Ford, K., Fouse, S., Hull, G, . . . Zacharias, G. Volumes 1 and 2: Final Report, US Air Force Scientific Advisory Board Report SAB-TR-07-02, Washington, DC (August). For More Information To learn more or request a copy of a paper (if available), contact G. […]

Developing a Software Project Team through Mentoring

Stouch, D. Boston University Project Management in Practice Conference, Boston, MA (May) Project team development is a critical component of effective human resources management. Mentoring is a technique that can help bridge the gap between the theoretical foundations of software engineering and the practical implementations of software systems. Mentorship involves an experienced professional guiding or […]

Universal Fingerprint Alignment for Biometric Cryptosystems

Stouch, D. The 3rd Boston University Student Conference on Information Assurance and Cyber Security, Boston, MA (December) The goal of biometric cryptosystems is to encrypt some critical data using a biometric template such as the user’s fingerprint as a key. In this manner the data can only be recovered using the same biometric from the […]

Vibrometry Classification of Moving Vehicles Using Throttle Signature Analysis

Masagutov, V., Stouch, D., Kanjilal, P., and Snorrason M. Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics (SMC) Conference, Montreal, Quebec (October) Any operating vehicle will emanate a degree of vibration due to the running engine and other machinery. These vibrations differ based on engine type, throttle-level, and vehicle structure and as […]

Assessment of Color Variables for Displaying Meta-Information on Maps

Bisantz, A., Pfautz, J., Stone, R., Roth, E., Thomas-Meyers, G., and Fouse, A. Human Factors & Ergonomics Society 50th Annual Meeting, San Francisco, CA (October 2006) In many domains, operators need to understand and act on large volumes of information from a variety of sources. Operators are particularly challenged by the need to reason about […]

Belief Network-based Situation Assessment for Air Operations Centers

Call, C. and Gonsalves, P. Proceedings of SPIE Defense & Security, vol. 6235, Orlando, FL (April 2006) In dynamic environments (e.g. an Air Operations Center (AOC)), effective real-time monitoring of mission execution is highly-dependent on situation awareness (SA). But whereas an individual’s perception of mission progress is biased by his or her immediate tasks and […]

Resource Management for Netcentric Environments

Das, S. Position paper at the 9th International Conference on Information Fusion (July, 2006) The military resource management problem involves timely distribution and placement of materiel, personnel, and sensor assets to accommodate mission requirements throughout the world. Moreover, the problem is highly dynamic in nature in the sense that requirements are changing almost at every […]

Spatiotemporal Clustering for Aggregating Hostile Units in Cluttered Environments

Das, S., Kanjilal, P., and Lawless, D. 9th International Conference on Information Fusion (July, 2006) We describe a novel clustering approach for aggregating mobile (typically potentially hostile) units in cluttered urban environments. The approach consists of a suite of spatiotemporal clustering algorithms that leverage the wealth of military sensor data available to provide insight into […]

A Systems View of Scale Space

Eaton, R., Stevens, M., McBride, J., Foil, G., and Snorrason, M. Proceedings of International Conference on Computer Vision Systems, New York, NY (January, 2006) Over the last 30 years, scale space representations have emerged as a fundamental tool for allowing systems to become increasingly robust against changes in camera viewpoint. Unfortunately, the implementation details that […]

Using Formalized Concepts Map to Model Role-Based Workflows

Feinman, A., Oexner, J., and Das, S. Second International Conference on Concept Mapping (CMC2006), San Jose, Costa Rica (September) Concept maps have traditionally been used as a method for eliciting, representing, and storing information about domains of knowledge. In this paper, we explore an additional use of Concept Maps, to model patterns of activity in […]

A Novel Approach to Bridging the Gap between Cognitive Engineers and Software System Engineers

Fouse, A., and Pfautz, J. Human Factors & Ergonomics Society 50th Annual Meeting, San Francisco, CA (October, 2006) To aid the development and deployment of complex software systems, techniques are needed to ensure effective communication between human factors and cognitive engineers, the software system engineers, and other stakeholders (e.g., users of the system under development, […]

Adaptive Cyberattack Modeling System

Gonsalves, P. and Dougherty, E. Proceedings of SPIE Defense & Security, vol. 6201, Orlando, FL (April 2006) The pervasiveness of software and networked information systems is evident across a broad spectrum of business and government sectors. Such reliance provides an ample opportunity not only for the nefarious exploits of lone wolf computer hackers, but for […]

Modeling Human Reasoning About Information

Guarino, S., Pfautz, J., Cox, Z., & Roth, E. 22nd Conference on Uncertainty in Artificial Intelligence, Cambridge, MA (July, 2006) Information, as well as its qualifiers, or meta-information, forms the basis of human decision-making. Modeling human reasoning therefore requires the development of representations of both information and meta-information. However, while existing models and modeling approaches may […]

Complex Adaptive Systems-based Toolkit for Dynamic Plan Assessment

Ho, S., Richards, M. and Gonsalves, P. International Conference on Complex Systems (ICCS 2006), Boston, MA (June, 2006). The military battlespace can be seen as an amalgamation of a large number of simpler entities or military units organized in a specific hierarchy, each with its own understanding of the overall mission, knowledge of operational doctrine, […]

Using Cultural Belief Sets in Intelligence Preparation of the Battlefield

Karabaich, B. and Pfautz, J. Military Intelligence Professional Bulletin (April – June 2006) This article outlines a conceptual framework which supports the visualization and clustering of the group structural influences and belief sets that influence group behavior (e.g., via various computational representations). It enables a intelligence analyst to rapidly develop a picture of groups with […]

Size Matters: The Role of Auditory and Visual Scale in the Identification of Unfamiliar Voices

Kilgore, R.M. Human Factors & Ergonomics Society 50th Annual Meeting, San Francisco, CA (October, 2006) Augmenting spatialized audio environments with visual depictions of voice locations has been shown to increase voice-identification performance. How the relative scale of mixed audio/visual interfaces affects this benefit, however, is not well understood. In this experiment, we compared the accuracy, […]

The SRK Inventory: A Tool for Structuring and Capturing a Worker Competencies Analysis

Kilgore, R.M., and St-Cyr, O. Human Factors & Ergonomics Society 50th Annual Meeting, San Francisco, CA (October, 2006) Worker Competencies Analysis (WCA) is the fifth and final phase of the Cognitive Work Analysis (CWA) framework. Unlike the earlier four phases, there is a dearth of published work illustrating how WCA is conducted within the context […]

Applications of Bayesian Belief Networks in Social Network Analysis

Koelle, D., Pfautz, J., Farry, M., Cox, Z., Catto, G., & Campolongo, J. 22nd Annual Conference on Uncertainty in Artificial Intelligence: UAI ’06, Cambridge, MA (July, 2006). In this paper, we discuss the use of Bayesian belief networks as a tool for enhancing social network analysis. Traditional social network analysis (SNA) primarily uses graph-theoretic algorithms […]

Object Detection with Single-Camera Stereo

McBride, J.C., Snorrason, M.S., Checka, N., Reiter, A., Foil, G, and Stevens, M.R. Proceedings of SPIE Defense & Security, vol. 6230, Orlando, FL (April, 2006) Many fielded mobile robot systems have demonstrated the importance of directly estimating the 3D shape of objects in the robot’s vicinity. The most mature solutions available today use active laser […]

Modeling What Happens Between Emotional Antecedents and Emotional Consequents

Neal Reilly, S. Proceedings of the 18th European Meeting on Cybernetics and Systems Research (R. Trappl, ed.), Vienna, Austria (April 2006) This paper discusses modeling some elements of emotion processing that occur between the initial recognition of an emotional situation and the processing of the effects of the resulting emotion or emotions on the behavior […]

Beyond Uncertainty: Examining Meta-Information Visualization Techniques

Pfautz, J., Bisantz, A., Roth, E., Fouse, A., & Nunes, A. SIGGRAPH, Boston, MA (July/August, 2006) The rendering of timely and accurate decisions in safety-critical systems requires that the human operator integrate information from various sources. The integration of this information in turn depends on the skill and experience level of the operator and on […]

An Approach for Multimodal Display Development for UAV Systems

Pfautz, J., Fouse, A., von Wiegand, T., Roth, E., & Fichtl, T. Proceedings of the Third Annual Workshop on Human Factors of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles, Mesa, AZ (May, 2006) Different classes of UAV systems anticipate controlling the UAV from a variety of operational environments, from safe, remote locations to locations under immediate threat of enemy […]

Using Cognitive Engineering for System Design and Evaluation: A Visualization Aid for Stability and Support Operations

Pfautz, J. and Roth, E. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics (May, 2006) Cognitive Engineering offers a principled approach to the design and development of human-centered systems. The Cognitive Engineering process integrates an analysis of the cognitive and collaborative demands of a user engaged in work with an iterative design, implementation, and evaluation approach to developing […]

The Role of Meta-Information in C2 Decision-Support Systems

Pfautz, J., Roth, E., Bisantz, A., Thomas-Meyers, G., Llinas, J., & Fouse, A. Proceedings of the Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium, San Diego, CA (June, 2006) Command and control (C2) in complex, dynamic, high-risk warfighting environments is clearly challenging, particularly because of the increasing complexity of available technology for processing and presenting information. […]

Cognitive Complexities Impacting Army Intelligence Analysis

Pfautz, J., Roth, E., Powell, G., Fichtl, T., Goebel, J., and Guarino, S. Human Factors & Ergonomics Society 50th Annual Meeting, San Francisco, CA (October, 2006) The primary goal of this effort was to understand the problems faced by military intelligence analysis personnel as well as how, and to what degree, the identification of these […]

Evaluation Testbed for ATD Performance Prediction (ETAPP)

Ralph, S.K., Irvine, J.M., Stevens, M.R., and Snorrason, M.S. Proceedings of SPIE Defense & Security, Orlando, FL (April, 2006) Automatic target detection (ATD) systems process imagery to detect and locate targets in imagery in support of a variety of military missions. Accurate prediction of ATD performance would assist in system design and trade studies, collection […]

START for Evaluation of Target Detection and Tracking

Ralph, S.K., Stevens, M.R., Irvine, J.M., Marvel, J., Snorasson, M.S., and Rice, A.C. Proceedings of SPIE Defense & Security, Orlando, FL (April, 2006) A major challenge for ATR evaluation is developing an accurate image truth that can be compared to an ATR algorithm’s decisions to assess performance. We have developed a semi-automated video truthing application, […]

Adaptation of a Multi-Resolution Adversarial Model for Asymmetric Warfare

Rosenberg, B. and Gonsalves, P. Proceedings of SPIE Defense & Security, vol. 6228, Orlando, FL (April 2006) Recent military operations have demonstrated the use by adversaries of non-traditional or asymmetric military tactics to offset US military might. Rogue nations with links to trans-national terrorists have created a highly unpredictable and potential dangerous environment for US […]

A Market-based Optimization Approach to Sensor and Resource Management

Schrage, D., Farnham, C., and Gonsalves, P. Proceedings of SPIE Defense & Security, Orlando, FL (April, 2006) Dynamic resource allocation for sensor management is a problem that demands solutions beyond traditional approaches to optimization. Market-based optimization applies solutions from economic theory, particularly game theory, to the resource allocation problem by creating an artificial market for […]

Adaptive Particle Filtering

Stevens, M.R., Gutchess, D., Checka, N., and Snorrason, M.S. Proceedings of SPIE Defense & Security, Orlando, FL (April, 2006) Image exploitation algorithms for Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) and weapon systems are extremely sensitive to differences between the operating conditions (OCs) under which they are trained and the extended operating conditions (EOCs) in which the […]

Automatic Generation of High-Fidelity Urban Scenes for Sensor Simulation

Stevens, M.R., Monnier, C.R., Snorrason, M.S., and Kapali S. Proceedings of SPIE Defense & Security, Orlando, FL (April, 2006) The development and evaluation of precision strike weaponry requires high fidelity image simulation, as data collections involving moving platforms are difficult to schedule and costly to perform. Furthermore, live data collections where the weapon is being […]

A Survey of Practical Applications in Image Watermarking

Stouch, D. The Second Boston University Student Conference on Information Assurance and Cyber Security, Boston, MA (December, 2006) In today’s technology centric society there is a compelling need to embed information in various digital media for many reasons, both noble and nefarious. One technique that has been becoming increasingly popular is watermarking. Watermarking involves embedding […]

Building a Human Behavior Model for a Collaborative Air-Combat Domain

Wallenstein, C., Neal Reilly, S., Harper, K., and McNally, B. Proceedings of the 15th Conference on Behavior Representation in Modeling and Simulation (BRIMS), Baltimore, MD (May 2006) Human Behavior Models (HBMs) are being used in increasingly complex and collaborative domains. One example of this is the Air Force’s EAAGLES (Extensible Architecture for Analysis and Generation […]