Development of Human-Out-of-the-Loop Participant Recruitment, Data Collection, Data Handling, and Participant Management System

Bracken, B.1, Potoczny-Jones, I.2, Wolcott, J.2, Raffaele, E.2, Woodward, L.2, Gogoel, C.3, Kiourtis, N.3, Schulte, B.3, Arean, P.4, and Farry, M.1 Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting (November 2020) Most human subjects research requires data collection by contacting local participants who visit a research site. This is costly, time-consuming, and decreases subject […]

Continuous Cognitive Workload Assessment and Combined Metrics of Performance in the Multi-Attribute Task Battery

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Bracken, B.1, Endsley, M.2, Tobyne, S.1, Leather, C.1, and Farry, M.1 Presented at the 11th International Conference on Applied Human Factors and Ergonomics Conference (AHFE), San Diego, CA (July 2020) Neurophysiological correlates of cognitive workload (e.g., changes in brain blood oxygenation) are detectable with minimally-invasive wearable sensors including functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). When cognitive […]

Evaluation of a New Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) Sensor, the fNIRS Explorer™, and Software to Assess Cognitive Workload During Ecologically Valid Tasks

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Bracken, B.1, Houssan, C.2, Broach, J.2, Milsten, A.2, Leather, C.1, Tobyne, S.1, Winder, A.1, and Farry, M.1 Presented at BIOSTEC 2020, 13th International Joint Conference on Biomedical Engineering Systems and Technologies, Valletta, Malta (February 2020) Medical personnel and first responders are often deployed to dangerous environments where their success at saving lives depends on their ability to […]

Enhancing Situational Awareness through Perceptual and Cognitive Acclimation to Augmented 360-Degree Visual Fields

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Kingsley, C., Wollocko, A., and Jenkins, M. Special Augment Event at Interservice/Industry Training, Simulation and Education Conference (I/ITSEC), Orlando, FL (to be presented in December 2019) Charles River Analytics is developing a system to enhance situational awareness (SA) by extending humans’ natural field of view (FOV), roughly 120°, to a real-world, 360° FOV. Our system provides a […]

How to Develop New Biosignals Based Products: PLUX Approach to Design New Products Based on Human Biosignals

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Plux Wireless Signals and Bracken, B. Access to human physiological, neurophysiological, and behavioral signals (biosignals) can revolutionize health solutions, scientific research across multiple fields, and everyday interaction between the digital and human worlds (e.g., through the internet of things, “smart” technologies, smartphone apps). One of the earliest capabilities to extract biosignals from humans were ECG recordings. Since then technology […]

Application of the DeepSense Deep Learning Framework to Determination of Activity Context from Smartphone Data

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Bracken, B., Manjunath, S., German, S., Monnier, C., and Farry, M. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 63, Issue 1, Pages 792-796 (November 2019) Current methods of assessing health are infrequent, costly, and require advanced medical equipment. 92% of US adults carry mobile phones, and 77% carry smartphones with advanced sensors (Smith, 2017). […]

Validation of a Physiological Approach to Measure Cognitive Workload: CAPT PICARD

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Bracken, B.1, Leather, C.1, E.V. Cross II.2, Stephenson, J.3, Greene, M.4, Lancaster, J.5, Munson, B.6, Holden, K.2 Human Mental Workload: Models and Applications. H-WORKLOAD 2019. Communications in Computer and Information Science, vol 1107. Springer, Cham (October 2019) This study validated a physiological workload tool during an investigation of information integration impacts on performance of a […]

Exploring Extended Reality as a Simulation Training Tool Through Naturalistic Interactions and Enhanced Immersion

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Duggan, D.1, Kingsley, C.1, Mazzeo, M.2, and Jenkins, M.1 International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction: Virtual, Augmented and Mixed Reality Applications and Case Studies, Orlando, FL (June 2019) Augmented reality (AR), mixed reality (MR), and virtual reality (VR) technologies – collectively extended reality (XR) – have been discussed in the context of training applications since their […]

Modeling Framework Used to Analyze and Describe Junctional Tourniquet Skills

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Bauchwitz, B.1, Curley, T.1, Kwan, C.2, Niehaus, J.1, Pugh., C.2, and Weyhrauch, P.1 Military Medicine, Volume 184, Issue Supplement 1, Pages 347–360 (March-April 2019) Medical educators have acknowledged the importance of simulation training in developing procedural skills. While simulation training in other disciplines has benefitted from evaluations of users’ skill acquisition, the majority of medical training […]

Validation of the fNIRS Pioneer™, a Portable, Durable, Rugged functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) Device

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Bracken, B., Festa, E., Sun, H., Leather, C., and Strangman, G. International Special Session on Real-world Assessment of Individuals During Everyday Routines (RAIDERS) at BIOSTEC 2019, Prague, Czech Republic (February 2019) Assessing cognitive workload using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) in labs is well established. However, fNIRS sensors useful during normal activities in real-world environments are […]

Modeling Perceptual Judgement in Believable Agents: A Signal Detection Approach

Lynn, S.1, Curley, T.2, and Weyhrauch, P.1 Presented at the joint annual meetings of the Society for Mathematical Psychology and the International Conference on Cognitive Modelling, Madison, WI (July 2018). A Warfighter in a combat environment is expected to continuously search his or her visual field to maintain situational awareness. Misidentification of relevant stimuli, such […]

Development and Refinement of a Portable, Durable, Rugged Functional Near-infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) Device

Bracken, B.1, Silva, F.2, Pacheco, M.2, deB Frederick, B.3, Palmon, N.1, and Leather, C.1 To be presented at the Military Health System Research Symposium (MHSRS), Kissimmee, FL (August 2018) Background: Army medic training often includes high-fidelity simulations. Trainers currently infer competence by observation alone—a challenging task. Assessing cognitive workload using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) when individuals are seated […]

Development and Validation of a Portable, Durable, Rugged Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) Device

Bracken, B.1, Festa, E.2, Sun, H.2, Leather, C.1, Strangman, G.3, Palmon, N.1, Silva, F.4, Pacheco, M.4, and deB Frederick, B.5 Presented at the International Neuroergonomics Conference, Philadelphia, PA (June 2018) Background Assessing cognitive workload using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) in labs is well established. Increased workload corresponds with increase in prefrontal blood oxygenation (HbO2) correlated with […]

Development and Refinement of a Portable, Durable, Rugged Functional Near-infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) Device

Bracken, B.1, Festa, E.2, Sun, H.2, Leather, C.1, Strangman, G.3, Palmon, N.1, Pacheco, M.4, Silva, F.4, and deB Frederick, B.5 Presented at the 2018 Brain Health and Performance Summit, Columbus, OH (April 2018) Army medic training often includes high-fidelity simulations. Trainers currently infer competence by observation alone—a challenging task. Assessing cognitive workload using functional near-infrared […]

Modeling and Comparing Nurse and Physician Trauma Assessment Skills

Bauchwitz, B., Niehaus, J., and Weyhrauch, P. Military Medicine, Volume 183, Issue suppl_1, 1 March 2018, Pages 47–54 (April 2018). Medical providers must master a large number of complicated tasks to deliver quality care and minimize unwanted clinical outcomes. In order to optimally train these tasks, medical training systems would benefit from models of skill […]

Comparison of a Custom Functional Near-infrared Spectroscopy Sensor, a Peripheral SpO2 Sensor, and a Standard Laboratory Sensor (Biopac) for RR-Interval Assessment

Bracken, B.1, Amazeen, G.2, Likens, A.2, Demir, M.2, and Gibbons, C.2 Presented at the 11th International Joint Conference on Biomedical Engineering Systems and Technologies (BIOSTEC 2018), Funchal, Portugal (January 2018) Across many careers, individuals face alternating periods of high and low cognitive workload which can impair cognitive function and undermine job performance. We have designed and […]

A System to Monitor, Extract, and Decode Indicators of Cognitive Workload (MEDIC) in Realistic, High-motion Environments

Bracken, B.1, Elkin-Frankston, S.1, Palmon, N.1, deB Frederick, B.2 Presented at the Military Health System Research Symposium, Kissimmee, FL (August 2017). Background Army medic training often includes high-fidelity simulations. Trainers currently infer competence by observation alone—a challenging task. We designed a system to continuously monitor physiological proxies for cognitive workload to augment performance observations. Assessing cognitive […]

A System to Monitor Cognitive Workload in Naturalistic, High-motion Environments

Bracken, B.1, Elkin-Frankston, S.1, Palmon, N1, Farry, M.1, and deB Frederick, B.2 Presented at the 1st International Symposium on Human Mental Workload: Models and Applications (H-WORKLOAD 2017), Dublin, Ireland (June 2017) Across many careers, individuals face alternating periods of high and low attention and cognitive workload can impair cognitive function and undermine job performance. We have […]

A Toolkit to Assist Researchers to More Efficiently Conduct Experiments Assessing Human State

Bracken, B., Palmon, N., Koelle, D., and Farry, M. Presented at the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society International Annual Meeting, Austin, TX (October 2017) For teams to perform effectively, individuals must focus on their own tasks, while simultaneously maintaining awareness of other team members. Researchers studying and attempting to optimize performance of teams as well as […]

Assessment and Diagnosis of Vestibular Indicators of Soldier Operational Readiness (ADVISOR)

Wollocko, A., Jenkins, M., Farry, M., and Irvin, S. Presented at the International Symposium on Human Factors and Ergonomics in Health Care: Shaping the Future, San Diego, CA (April 2016) Soldiers who suffer a potentially concussive injury or barotrauma need accurate, timely, in-theater assessment of symptoms. Often this initial assessment and diagnosis must be conducted by first-level […]

Virtual Reality System for the Assessment and Diagnosis of Vestibular Indicators of Soldier Operational Readiness (ADVISOR)

Wollocko, A., Jenkins, M., Irvin, S., and Farry, M. Presented at NextMed / Medicine Meets Virtual Reality (MMVR), Los Angeles, CA (April 2016) Soldiers who suffer a potentially concussive injury or barotrauma need accurate, timely, in-theater assessment of symptoms. Often this initial assessment and diagnosis must be conducted by first-level responders who attempt to assess vestibular symptoms […]

A Cross-Domain Approach to Designing an Unobtrusive System to Assess Human State and Predict Upcoming Performance Deficits

Bracken, B., Palmon, N., Kellogg, L., Elkin-Frankston, S., and Farry, M. Presented at the 2016 Human Factors & Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Washington, DC (September 2016) Many work environments are fraught with highly variable demands on cognitive workload, fluctuating between periods of high operational demand to the point of cognitive overload, to long periods of low […]

Second Validation of a System to Monitor, Extract, and Decode Indicators of Cognitive Workload (MEDIC)

Bracken, B.1, Negri, A.1, Amazeen, P.3,  Likens, A.3, Fedele, M.4, Demir, M.4, Palmon, N.1, deB Frederick, B.2, and Cooke, N.4 Presented at the Medical Health Systems Research Symposium (MHSRS), Kissimmee, FL (August 2016) Background: Military medical personnel are deployed to operational environments where their success saving lives depends on their ability to act quickly and effectively, both […]

Monitoring, Extracting, and Decoding Indicators of Cognitive Workload (MEDIC)

Bracken, B.1, Palmon, N.1, Frederick, B.2, Cooke, N.3, Romero, V.1, Koelle, D.1, and Pfautz, J.1 Poster to be presented at Neuroscience 2015, Chicago, IL (October 2015) Background: The success of emergency medical personnel in saving lives depends on their acting quickly and effectively, as individuals and as teams. Training must go beyond individual skills to include team […]

Monitoring, Extracting, and Decoding Indicators of Cognitive Workload (MEDIC)

Bracken, B.1, Palmon, N.1, Frederick, B.2, Cooke, N.3, Romero, V.1, Koelle, D.1, and Pfautz, J.1 Presented at the 2015 Military Health System Research symposium, Ft. Lauderdale, FL (August 2015). Background: US military medical personnel may be deployed to a variety of operational environments where their success saving lives depends on their ability to act quickly and effectively, […]

An Unobtrusive System to Measure, Assess, and Predict Cognitive Workload

Bracken, B., Farry, M., Jenkins, M., and Monnier, C. Oral presentation at the Advanced Maui Optical and Space Surveillance Technologies (AMOS) Conference, Maui, Hawaii (September 2015) Complex, computational capabilities are required for tracking, characterizing, and cataloging objects in space. However, the improved real-time highly-detailed space situational awareness (SSA) capabilities that the Air Force is trying to […]

Assessment and Diagnosis of Vestibular Indicators of Soldier Operational Readiness (ADVISOR)

Jenkins, M., Wollocko, A., Irvin, S., and Farry, M. Military Health System Research Symposium (MHSRS), Ft. Lauderdale, FL (August 2015) Soldiers suffering a traumatic brain injury (TBI) or barotrauma need accurate, timely, in-theater assessment of symptoms to inform appropriate return to duty (RTD) decisions. Often, this initial assessment and diagnosis must be conducted by first-level […]

Assessment and Diagnosis of Vestibular Indicators of Soldier Operational Readiness (ADVISOR)

Jenkins, M., Wollocko, A., and Irvin, S. Defense Energy  Innovation Summit, Austin, TX (December 2015) Soldiers suffering a traumatic brain injury (TBI) or barotrauma need accurate, timely, in-theater assessment of symptoms to inform appropriate return to duty (RTD) decisions. Often, this initial assessment and diagnosis must be conducted by first-level responders (e.g., Medics, Corpsmen) who attempt […]

Interpreting Cognitive and Physiological States from Biometric Sensors to Predict Performance Degradation

Bracken, B.1, Guarino, S.1, Dorin, W.1, Romero, V.1, Pfautz, J.1, DiZio, P.2, and Lackner, J.2 Presented at the 44th Annual Society for Neuroscience Conference, Washington, DC(November 2014) Biometric techniques for sensing peripheral nervous system indicators (e.g., heart rate, blood pressure, and galvanic skin response), when analyzed and interpreted correctly, provide an opportunity to objectively assess and forecast […]

Beyond PowerPoint™: Tools for Rapid and Accurate Idea Transfer

Miller1, C.A. (Panel Chair),  Ott1, T.(Panel Co-Chair), Frost2, D., Goan3, T., Potter4, S., Ramming5, C., and Thomsen1, D. Panel Presentation at The Human Factors & Ergonomics Society 52nd Annual Meeting, New York, NY (September 2008) Microsoft’s PowerPoint presentation software turned 30 years old last year and is, arguably, the dominant mechanism for idea transfer in the world […]

Meta-Information Representation and Communication

Pfautz, J., Roth, E., Bisantz, A., Jackson, C., Thomas, G., Trafton, G., and Whitaker, R. Panel Discussion at the Human Factors & Ergonomics Society 51st Annual Meeting, Baltimore, MD (October) Increasingly, the study of cognition and action in complex sociotechnical systems has revealed that humans reason about both information and the qualifications of that information. These […]

Evaluation testbed for ATD performance prediction (ETAPP)

Ralph, S., Eaton, R., Snorrason, M., Irvine, J., and Vanstone, S. Proceedings of SPIE Defense & Security, vol. 6566, Orlando, FL (May, 2007). Automatic target detection (ATD) systems process imagery to detect and locate targets in imagery in support of a variety of military missions. Accurate prediction of ATD performance would assist in system design […]

Developing a Software Project Team through Mentoring

Stouch, D. Boston University Project Management in Practice Conference, Boston, MA (May) Project team development is a critical component of effective human resources management. Mentoring is a technique that can help bridge the gap between the theoretical foundations of software engineering and the practical implementations of software systems. Mentorship involves an experienced professional guiding or […]

Using Cultural Belief Sets in Intelligence Preparation of the Battlefield

Karabaich, B. and Pfautz, J. Military Intelligence Professional Bulletin (April – June 2006) This article outlines a conceptual framework which supports the visualization and clustering of the group structural influences and belief sets that influence group behavior (e.g., via various computational representations). It enables a intelligence analyst to rapidly develop a picture of groups with […]

Size Matters: The Role of Auditory and Visual Scale in the Identification of Unfamiliar Voices

Kilgore, R.M. Human Factors & Ergonomics Society 50th Annual Meeting, San Francisco, CA (October, 2006) Augmenting spatialized audio environments with visual depictions of voice locations has been shown to increase voice-identification performance. How the relative scale of mixed audio/visual interfaces affects this benefit, however, is not well understood. In this experiment, we compared the accuracy, […]

The SRK Inventory: A Tool for Structuring and Capturing a Worker Competencies Analysis

Kilgore, R.M., and St-Cyr, O. Human Factors & Ergonomics Society 50th Annual Meeting, San Francisco, CA (October, 2006) Worker Competencies Analysis (WCA) is the fifth and final phase of the Cognitive Work Analysis (CWA) framework. Unlike the earlier four phases, there is a dearth of published work illustrating how WCA is conducted within the context […]

Modeling What Happens Between Emotional Antecedents and Emotional Consequents

Neal Reilly, S. Proceedings of the 18th European Meeting on Cybernetics and Systems Research (R. Trappl, ed.), Vienna, Austria (April 2006) This paper discusses modeling some elements of emotion processing that occur between the initial recognition of an emotional situation and the processing of the effects of the resulting emotion or emotions on the behavior […]

Cognitive Complexities Impacting Army Intelligence Analysis

Pfautz, J., Roth, E., Powell, G., Fichtl, T., Goebel, J., and Guarino, S. Human Factors & Ergonomics Society 50th Annual Meeting, San Francisco, CA (October, 2006) The primary goal of this effort was to understand the problems faced by military intelligence analysis personnel as well as how, and to what degree, the identification of these […]

Evaluation Testbed for ATD Performance Prediction (ETAPP)

Ralph, S.K., Irvine, J.M., Stevens, M.R., and Snorrason, M.S. Proceedings of SPIE Defense & Security, Orlando, FL (April, 2006) Automatic target detection (ATD) systems process imagery to detect and locate targets in imagery in support of a variety of military missions. Accurate prediction of ATD performance would assist in system design and trade studies, collection […]

Requirements and Approaches for Modeling Individuals Within Organizational Simulations

Hudlicka, E. and Zacharias, G. W. Rouse and K. Boff, eds. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ (2005) The past decade has witnessed a growth of interest in modeling and simulation of individuals and organizations. From a research perspective, these simulations are important because they enable explorations of both individual and organizational decision-making mechanisms. […]

TRACE: An Ontology-based Approach to Generic Traceability Tools for Human Behavior Models

Young, A. and Harper, K. 14th Conference on Behavior Representations in Modeling and Simulation, Universal City, CA (May, 2005) This paper presents TRACE, a set of generic, ontology-based traceability tools and algorithms that support the human behavior model (HBM) developer/analyst in gaining insight into a given model’s reasoning and decision processes. Developing generic HBM traceability […]

Approaches for Modeling Individuals Within Organizational Simulations

Hudlicka, E. and Zacharias, G. R. G. Ingalls, M.D. Rosetti, J.S. Smith, and B.A. Peters, eds., 2004 Winter Simulation Conference, Washington, D.C. (December 2004) The human behavior modeling community has traditionally been divided into those addressing individual behavior models and those addressing organizational and team models. And yet it is clear that these extremes do not reflect […]

Agent-Based Performance Assessment Tool for General Aviation Operations under Free Flight

Harper, K., Mulgund, S., Zacharias, G., and Kuchar, J. Proceedings of the 1998 Guidance, Navigation, and Control Conference, Boston, MA (August 1998) For More Information To learn more or request a copy of a paper (if available), contact info@cra.com. (Please include your name, address, organization, and the paper reference. Requests without this information will not […]

Modeling Cognitive Effects on Visual Search for Targets in Cluttered Backgrounds

Snorrason, M., Ruda, H., and Hoffman, J. Proceedings of SPIE , Vol. 3375, Aerosense, Orlando, FL (April 1998) To understand how a human operator performs visual search in complex scenes, it is necessary to take into account top-down cognitive biases in addition to bottom-up visual saliency effects. We constructed a model to elucidate the relationship […]