HyWorM: An Experiment in Dynamic Improvement of Analytic Processes

Trewhitt, E.1, Whitaker, E.1, Veinott, E.2, Thomas, R.3, Riley, M.1, McDermott, A.4, Eusebi, L.4, Dougherty, M.5, Illingworth, D.5, Guarino, S.4 International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction (July 2021) HyWorM is an approach and implementation for guiding analytic sensemaking processes using the HyGene model of human hypothesis generation. It is an evolution of the RAMPAGE Workflow Monitor […]

Developing an Adaptive Framework to Support Intelligence Analysis

McDermott, A.1, Veinott, E.2, Eusebi, L.1, Whitaker, E.3, Trewhitt, E.3, Mueller, S.2, Illingworth, D.4, Thomas, R.3, Dougherty, M.4, Guarino, S.1 International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 2021 An essential component to intelligence analysis is inferring an explanation for uncertain, contradictory, and incomplete data. In order to arrive at the best explanation, effective analysts in any discipline […]

Can Situation Awareness Be Measured Physiologically?

Bracken, B.1, Tobyne, S.1, Winder, A.1, Shamsi, N.1, Endsley, M.2 Advances in Neuroergonomics and Cognitive Engineering (July 2021) To operate effectively across a variety of environments, personnel (e.g., air traffic controllers, pilots, truck drivers, emergency response crews) must develop and maintain situation awareness (SA), perceiving relevant elements in the environment, understanding their meaning, and projecting […]

Human Factors Issues and Challenges In Research on ‘Many-Agent’ Control Applications

Miller, C.¹, Adams, J.², Clark, S.³, Kane, S.⁴, Roundtree, K.², and Walker, P.¹ Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting (February 2021) Human control of multiple agents in swarm or multi-agent deployments are still novel and understudied—especially when real-world research involving many agents (e.g., 50+) are considered, though many organizations are rushing to […]

Transdisciplinary Team Research to Develop Theory of Mind in Human-AI Teams

Fiore, S.1, Bracken, B.2, Demir, M.3, Freeman, J.4, Lewis, M.5 2020 Human Factors and Ergonomics Society International Annual Meeting (October 2020) This panel provided a transdisciplinary perspective on developing artificial social intelligence for teams. A panel with representatives from the cognitive, computational, and neural sciences discussed theoretical, methodological, and technological insights derived from their respective […]

Drone Swarms: A Transformational Technology

Lynn, S., Koelle, D., and Wronski, R. Aerospace & Defense Technology, May:14-17 2020. Drone swarms are, in every sense, a transformational technology. They can replace humans in dangerous or hostile environments. In sufficient numbers, they can collect information from multiple locations and directions, integrating it to form insights not otherwise available. That information can inform […]

Predict and Analyze Novel and Emerging Diseases Enabled by Models of Infection Conditions

Prue, B.1, Voge, J.1, Mara, J.1, Wollocko, A.1, and Mekaru, S.2 Poster presentation at the International Conference of Human-Computer Interaction (HCII 2018), Las Vegas, NV (July 2018) Incidents of infectious disease pose serious threats to armed forces worldwide, risking the success of critical operations and the deaths of Warfighters. Force medical personnel require support to […]

Lexicon and Schema Development for Domain Understanding and Ontology Design

Skipper, J., Hookway, S., and Gorman, J. In Ground/Air Multisensor Interoperability, Integration, and Networking for Persistent ISR IX (Vol. 10635, p. 1063514), International Society for Optics and Photonics (May 2018). Our recent experience working as part of a large team has enabled us to identify the role that terminology development plays in team coordination, idea generation, and […]

Predict and Analyze Novel and Emerging Diseases Enabled by Models of Infection Conditions

Prue, B.1, Voge, J.1, Mara, J.1, Wollocko, A.1, and Mekaru, S.2 Poster presentation at the International Conference of Human-Computer Interaction (HCII 2018), Las Vegas, NV (July 2018) Incidents of infectious disease pose serious threats to armed forces worldwide, risking the success of critical operations and the deaths of Warfighters. Force medical personnel require support to […]

A Toolkit to Assist Researchers to More Efficiently Conduct Experiments Assessing Human State

Bracken, B., Palmon, N., Koelle, D., and Farry, M. Presented at the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society International Annual Meeting, Austin, TX (October 2017) For teams to perform effectively, individuals must focus on their own tasks, while simultaneously maintaining awareness of other team members. Researchers studying and attempting to optimize performance of teams as well as […]

A Multi-modal Interface for Natural Operator Teaming with Autonomous Robots (MINOTAUR)

Kane, S., McGurgan, K., Voshell, M., Monnier, C., German, S., and Ost, A. Presented at the 8th International Conference on Applied Human Factors and Ergonomics (AHFE 2017), Los Angeles, CA (July 2017) Dismounted squads face logistical problems, including the management of physical burdens in complex operating environments. Autonomous unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs) can help transport equipment […]

Providing Distributed Situation Awareness to Human and Canine Tracking Teams

Danczyk, J., Eaton, R., Hutchins, R., Jenkins, M., and Irvin, S. Presented at the 2016 IEEE International Multi-Disciplinary Conference on Cognitive Methods in Situation Awareness and Decision Support (CogSIMA), San Diego, CA (March 2016)   Canines are commonly used for various police force tasks that help a human maintain situational awareness. One area where canines provide […]

Are Behavioral Measures Useful for Detecting Cognitive Workload During Human-Computer Interaction?

Elkin-Frankston, S., Bracken, B., Irvin, S., and Jenkins, M. Presented at the 4th International Conference on Human Side of Service Engineering, taking place at the 7th International Conference on Applied Human Factors and Ergonomics (AHFE 2016),  Orlando, FL (July 2016) Commonly used techniques for measuring cognitive workload during human-computer interaction are cumbersome or intrusive to task performance. Physiological […]

Assessment and Diagnosis of Vestibular Indicators of Soldier Operational Readiness (ADVISOR)

Wollocko, A., Jenkins, M., Farry, M., and Irvin, S. Presented at the International Symposium on Human Factors and Ergonomics in Health Care: Shaping the Future, San Diego, CA (April 2016) Soldiers who suffer a potentially concussive injury or barotrauma need accurate, timely, in-theater assessment of symptoms. Often this initial assessment and diagnosis must be conducted by first-level […]

Virtual Reality System for the Assessment and Diagnosis of Vestibular Indicators of Soldier Operational Readiness (ADVISOR)

Wollocko, A., Jenkins, M., Irvin, S., and Farry, M. Presented at NextMed / Medicine Meets Virtual Reality (MMVR), Los Angeles, CA (April 2016) Soldiers who suffer a potentially concussive injury or barotrauma need accurate, timely, in-theater assessment of symptoms. Often this initial assessment and diagnosis must be conducted by first-level responders who attempt to assess vestibular symptoms […]

Applications and Considerations of Augmented Reality Capabilities for Next Generation Human-Computer Interaction to Support Military Shared Mission Command

Wollocko, A., and Jenkins, M. Presented at Human-Computer Interaction International 2016, Toronto, Canada (July 2016) Augmented reality (AR) technology is quickly evolving and providing the capabilities needed to lead the next generation of human-computer interaction, and can be particularly useful in military situations, like Shared Mission Command (MC) and Collaborative Cockpit Displays. To enable traditional software […]

Demonstration of an Adaptable Toolkit for the Assessment and Augmentation of Performance by Teams in Real Time (ADAPTER)

Bracken1, B., Palmon1, N., Elkin-Frankston1, E., and Cooke2, N. Presented at the Global Health and Performance Summit, Columbus, OH (May 2016) Teams of individuals must multitask to perform their own work while maintaining shared attention across their teammates. Experimenters who study teams use advanced methods to understand physiological, neurophysiological, and behavioral correlates of individual and team performance, […]

Assessment and Diagnosis of Vestibular Indicators of Soldier Operational Readiness (ADVISOR)

Jenkins, M., Wollocko, A., Irvin, S., and Farry, M. Military Health System Research Symposium (MHSRS), Ft. Lauderdale, FL (August 2015) Soldiers suffering a traumatic brain injury (TBI) or barotrauma need accurate, timely, in-theater assessment of symptoms to inform appropriate return to duty (RTD) decisions. Often, this initial assessment and diagnosis must be conducted by first-level […]

Ecological Display Symbology to Support Pilot Situational Awareness during Shipboard Operations

Jenkins, M., Hogan, C., and Kilgore, R. Helicopter Aiding for Zero-Zero Landings with Advanced, Reactive Displays (HAZZARD) IEEE International Multi-Disciplinary Conference on Cognitive Methods in Situation Awareness and Decision Support (CogSIMA), Orlando, FL (March 2015) We present two critical elements from the design of a cockpit heads-down display symbology to support safe and efficient shipboard […]

Assessment and Diagnosis of Vestibular Indicators of Soldier Operational Readiness (ADVISOR)

Jenkins, M., Wollocko, A., and Irvin, S. Defense Energy  Innovation Summit, Austin, TX (December 2015) Soldiers suffering a traumatic brain injury (TBI) or barotrauma need accurate, timely, in-theater assessment of symptoms to inform appropriate return to duty (RTD) decisions. Often, this initial assessment and diagnosis must be conducted by first-level responders (e.g., Medics, Corpsmen) who attempt […]

Designing Instructor Support Tools for Virtual Shiphandling Training

Voshell, M., Kilgore, R., Hogan, C., and Young, D. Presented at the Interservice/Industry Training, Simulation & Education Conferece (I/ITSEC), Las Vegas, NV (December 2015) Practice and experience are fundamental to seamanship and shiphandling training, but are significantly limited by platform availability and at sea time. With hands-on experience and at-sea assignments available only to a subset […]

An Interactive Fuel-Altitude-Time Pattern Display for Air Vehicle Replanning

Young, D., Voshell, M., Kane, S., Kilgore, R., and Hogan, C. Presented at the International Conference on Applied Human Factors and Ergonomics (AHFE), Las Vegas, NV (July 2015). Air vehicle pilots and operators must frequently replan vehicle routes in response to dynamic mission needs and changing characteristics of the environment. These activities place a high cognitive load on […]

Increasing the Transparency of Unmanned Systems: Applications of Ecological Interface Design

Kilgore, R. and Voshell, M. Accepted to Lecture Notes in Computer Science 8526:378-389, and presented at The 16th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction (HCII), Crete, Greece (June 2014). This paper describes ongoing efforts to address the challenges of supervising teams of heterogeneous unmanned vehicles through the use of demonstrated Ecological Interface Design (EID) principles. We first review the EID […]

Effect of Novel Adaptive Displays on Pilot Performance and Workload

Liu1, D., Guarino2, S., Roth3, E., Harper2, K., and Vincenzi4, D. In International Journal of Aviation Psychology, 22 (3), pg 242-265. The effect of adaptive display on pilot performance was assessed using objective and subjective measures from a sequence of 2 experiments. Combat aircraft advances have led to dramatic increases in the operational tempo facing the […]

Measuring the Operational Utility of HSCB modeling and Methods

Pfautz, J., Carlson, E., Prue, B., and Koelle, D. Presented at the 4th International Conference on Applied Human Factors and Ergonomics (AHFE) San Francisco, CA (July 2012) The HSCB modeling community has shown a increased commitment to ensuring that computational representations of human socio-cultural phenomenon can be scientifically validated. Yet the challenges of performing rigorous validation studies […]

Development of Dynamic Visual Artifacts for Resilient Human-Automation Collaboration

Stark, R., Voshell, S., Mahoney, S., and Farry, M. Presented at the 4th International Conference on Applied Human Factors and Ergonomics (AHFE) San Francisco, CA (July 2012) Prevalence of recent “Big Data” technologies such as cloud computing, data warehousing, and enterprise analytics continue to increase our powers to collect, transmit, and transform data across an increasing number […]

Visualizations and Interaction Methods for Resilient Submarine Decision Support

Stark1, R., Woods2, D., Farry1, M., Morison2, A., Thornton1, W., and Wollocko1, A. Presented at the 56th Annual Meetings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society (HFES), Boston, MA (October 2012) Submarine commanders must make decisions rapidly to carry out increasingly complex missions. However, the rate of information delivery has outpaced the capacity of the command and […]

Mission Displays to Support the Observability and Directability of Planning Systems

Dudzic, S. and Kilgore, R. Presented at the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Sense and Avoid (SAA) Science and Research Panel, MIT Lincoln Labs, Lexington, MA (October 2011) To develop, evaluate, and effectively compare alternative courses of action during replanning events, unmanned systems operators must consider and rapidly respond to myriad […]

Aircraft Pilot and Operator Interfaces

Cummings, M. and Zacharias, G. In Blockley, R. and Shyy, W. (Eds.) Encyclopedia of Aerospace Engineering, vol. 8. 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., Hoboken, NJ. More info For More Information To learn more or request a copy of a paper (if available), contact Greg Zacharias. (Please include your name, address, organization, and the paper reference. Requests without […]

An Architecture for Collaborative Human/AI Control of Interactive Characters

Niehaus, J. and Weyhrauch, P. Proceedings of the AAMAS 2010 Workshop on Collaborative Human/AI Control for Interactive Experiences (CHACIE), Toronto, Canada (2010) Interactive characters – widely used for entertainment, education, and training – may be controlled by human operators or software agents. Human operators are extremely capable in supporting this interaction, but the cost per interaction […]

Conveying Network Features in Geospatial Battlespace Displays

Godwin, J.A., and Kilgore, R. Visweek 2010, Salt Lake City, UT (October 2010) Advanced battlespace network visualization techniques are required within the modern Air Operations Center (AOC) to improve cross-domain situation awareness and to support planning and decision-making. We present a visualization toolkit to address this need that supports the integration of network health and status […]

Visualization of Temporal Relationships within Coordinated Views

Dudzic, S., Godwin, J.A., and Kilgore, R. Visweek 2010, Salt Lake City, UT (October 2010) In command and control (C2) environments, decision makers must rapidly understand and address key temporal relationships that exist between critical tasks as conditions fluctuate. However, traditional temporal displays, such as mission timelines, fail to support user understanding of and reasoning about […]

Visual Strategies for Enhancing User Perception of Task Relationships in Emergency Operations Centers

Dudzic, S., Godwin, J.A., and Kilgore, R. Proceedings of SPIE Defense, Security & Sensing, vol. 7692, Orlando, FL (2010) In time-sensitive environments, such as DHS emergency operations centers (EOCs), it is imperative for decision makers to rapidly understand and address key logical relationships that exist between tasks, entities, and events, even as conditions fluctuate. These relationships […]

Reducing Risk in System Design Through Human-Systems Integration

Stark1, R. and Kokini2, C. Ergonomics in Design: The Quarterly of Human Factors Applications, vol. 18, num. 2, (Spring 2010) Our goal is to provide examples that demonstrate the risk reduction benefits of human-systems integration (HSI), a crucial part of successful and efficient system design. It supplements Booher and Minninger’s 2003 work by providing parallel examples […]

Visual Representations of Meta-Information

Bisantz1, A., Stone1, R., Pfautz2, J., Fouse2, A., Farry2, M., Roth3, E., Nagy4, A., and Daniels5, G. Journal of Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making (Spring 2009) We conducted two studies that investigated display characteristics related to color (hue, saturation, brightness, and transparency) and contrast with a background, for displaying information qualifiers (termed meta-information) such as uncertainty, […]

A Scalable Architecture for Visual Data Exploration

Decker 1, J., Godwin2, J., Livingston1, M., and Royle1, D. Proceedings of the IEEE Symposium on Visual Analytics Science and Technology (VAST), Atlantic City, NJ (October 2009) Intelligence analysts in the areas of defense and homeland security are now faced with the difficult problem of discerning the relevant details amidst massive data stores. We propose a component-based […]

Assessing Novel Adaptive Displays Impact on Pilot Performance

Guarino1, S., Liu2, D., Roth3, E., Bartosiewicz2, M., Harper1, K. and Vincenzi, D.4 International Symposium of Aviation Psychology (2009) Combat aircraft advances have led to dramatic increase in the operational tempo facing the Navy pilot, increasing the likelihood for Situation Awareness (SA) failures, biases, and information overload. We designed a system for constructing intelligent adaptive displays to […]

Designing Visualizations to Support Collaborative Environments

Feinman, A., Farry, M., Kilgore, R., and Pfautz, J. Proceedings of the 8th Symposium on Human Interaction with Complex Systems (HICS), Norfolk, VA (April, 2008) Designing software systems to support teams of decision-makers requires special attention to providing visualizations that support awareness of collaborators, the ability to negotiate meaning, and the ability to coordinate actions. In […]

From Work Domains to Worker Competencies: A Five-Phase CWA

Kilgore1, R., St-Cyr2, O., and Jamieson3, G. In Bisantz, A.M. and Burns, C.M. (Eds.) Applications of Cognitive Work Analysis, CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL (2008) In this chapter we describe the process of applying all five phases of a Cognitive Work Analysis (CWA) to a single domain that reasonably approximates the complexity of a real-world sociotechnical system. […]

Formalizing Ecological Display Development: The Form Comparison Matrix

Kilgore, R. Proceedings of the 51st Annual Meeting of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, Baltimore, MD (October 2007). Combined, the Ecological Interface Design (EID) and Cognitive Work Analysis (CWA) frameworks foster the development of complex system interfaces that capitalize on human perceptive capabilities to support skill-, rule- and knowledge-based control behavior. While numerous examples […]

Modeling the Effects of Behavior Moderators for Simulation-Based Human-Factors Design

Neal Reilly, S., Bachman, J., Harper, K., Marotta, S., and Pfautz, J. Proceedings of the 51st Annual Meeting of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, Baltimore, MD (October, 2007) Designing systems, interfaces, procedures and artifacts in simulated environments before they are developed and deployed has the potential to greatly decrease the costs of design and […]

Using Formalized Concepts Map to Model Role-Based Workflows

Feinman, A., Oexner, J., and Das, S. Second International Conference on Concept Mapping (CMC2006), San Jose, Costa Rica (September) Concept maps have traditionally been used as a method for eliciting, representing, and storing information about domains of knowledge. In this paper, we explore an additional use of Concept Maps, to model patterns of activity in […]

A Novel Approach to Bridging the Gap between Cognitive Engineers and Software System Engineers

Fouse, A., and Pfautz, J. Human Factors & Ergonomics Society 50th Annual Meeting, San Francisco, CA (October, 2006) To aid the development and deployment of complex software systems, techniques are needed to ensure effective communication between human factors and cognitive engineers, the software system engineers, and other stakeholders (e.g., users of the system under development, […]

Beyond Uncertainty: Examining Meta-Information Visualization Techniques

Pfautz, J., Bisantz, A., Roth, E., Fouse, A., & Nunes, A. SIGGRAPH, Boston, MA (July/August, 2006) The rendering of timely and accurate decisions in safety-critical systems requires that the human operator integrate information from various sources. The integration of this information in turn depends on the skill and experience level of the operator and on […]

An Approach for Multimodal Display Development for UAV Systems

Pfautz, J., Fouse, A., von Wiegand, T., Roth, E., & Fichtl, T. Proceedings of the Third Annual Workshop on Human Factors of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles, Mesa, AZ (May, 2006) Different classes of UAV systems anticipate controlling the UAV from a variety of operational environments, from safe, remote locations to locations under immediate threat of enemy […]

The Role of Meta-Information in C2 Decision-Support Systems

Pfautz, J., Roth, E., Bisantz, A., Thomas-Meyers, G., Llinas, J., & Fouse, A. Proceedings of the Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium, San Diego, CA (June, 2006) Command and control (C2) in complex, dynamic, high-risk warfighting environments is clearly challenging, particularly because of the increasing complexity of available technology for processing and presenting information. […]

START for Evaluation of Target Detection and Tracking

Ralph, S.K., Stevens, M.R., Irvine, J.M., Marvel, J., Snorasson, M.S., and Rice, A.C. Proceedings of SPIE Defense & Security, Orlando, FL (April, 2006) A major challenge for ATR evaluation is developing an accurate image truth that can be compared to an ATR algorithm’s decisions to assess performance. We have developed a semi-automated video truthing application, […]

Building a Human Behavior Model for a Collaborative Air-Combat Domain

Wallenstein, C., Neal Reilly, S., Harper, K., and McNally, B. Proceedings of the 15th Conference on Behavior Representation in Modeling and Simulation (BRIMS), Baltimore, MD (May 2006) Human Behavior Models (HBMs) are being used in increasingly complex and collaborative domains. One example of this is the Air Force’s EAAGLES (Extensible Architecture for Analysis and Generation […]

START for Evaluation of Target Detection and Tracking

Irvine, J. M., Ralph, S., Stevens, M. R., Marvel, J., Snorrason, M., and Gwilt, D. Proceedings SPIE Defense & Security, vol 5807. Orlando, FL (April, 2005) A major challenge for ATR evaluation is developing an accurate image truth that can be compared to an ATR algorithm’s decisions to assess performance. While many standard truthing methods […]

Meta-Information Visualization in Geographic Information Display Systems

Pfautz, J., Bisantz, A., Roth, E., Fouse, A., and Shuster, K. Proceedings of SID ’05, Boston, MA (May 2005) This paper describes the development of techniques in Geographic Information Systems to support the visualization of “meta-information” – qualifiers of incoming data that significantly influence a user’s perception of that data (e.g., uncertainty, recency, source). We […]

Applying Adaptive Control and Display Characteristics to Future Air Force Crew Stations

Haas, M., Nelson, W.T., Repperger, D., Bolia, D., and Zacharias, G. International Journal of Aviation Psychology, Vol. 11 No. 2, pp 223-246 (April 2001) The Human Effectiveness Directorate of the Air Force Research Laboratory is developing and evaluating human-machine interface concepts to enhance overall weapon system performance by embedding knowledge of the operator’s state inside […]

Adaptive Pilot/Vehicle Interfaces for the Tactical Air Environment

Mulgund, S., Rinkus, G., and Zacharias, G. Psychological Issues in the Design and Use of Virtual Adaptive Environments, (L.J. Hettinger and M.W. Haas, editors.), Lawrence Erlbaum Publishers, Mahwah, NJ. For More Information To learn more or request a copy of a paper (if available), contact info@cra.com. (Please include your name, address, organization, and the paper […]

Life Cycle Design Support Through Hyperlinked Document Spaces

Grecu, D. Proceedings of the 4th International Workshop on Knowledge Intensive CAD, University of Parma(May 2000) For More Information To learn more or request a copy of a paper (if available), contact info@cra.com. (Please include your name, address, organization, and the paper reference. Requests without this information will not be honored.)

Adaptive Human/Machine Interface for Advanced Air Traffic Management

Harper, K., Guarino, S., and Zacharias, G Proceedings of the AIAA Guidance, Navigation and Control Conference, Denver, CO (August 2000) The development and fielding of distributed air-ground traffic management systems and procedures will dramatically change human roles and responsibilities in the airspace system. These systematic changes will create new challenges for the development of effective […]

Pilot-Vehicle Interface Adaptation Based on Situation and Workload

Rinkus, G., Mulgund, S., Harper, K., and Zacharias, G. Proceedings of the Third Annual Symposium and Exhibition on Situational Awareness in the Tactical Air Environment, Patuxent River, MD(June 1998) For More Information To learn more or request a copy of a paper (if available), contact info@cra.com. (Please include your name, address, organization, and the paper reference. […]