Assured Onboard Autonomy Architecture for Autonomous Underwater Vehicles

Balasuriya, A. AUVSI XPONENTIAL 2021 (May 2021) In this paper, we present an adaptive autonomy architecture which considers the uncertainties introduced by autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) onboard sensors, as well as the challenges introduced by dynamic underwater environments. By addressing these considerations, our architecture provides AUVs with additional capabilities that enable a wider range of […]

Applied Co-Creation Approach to the Design and Development of a Socially Assistive Robot System to Support Hardware and Software Accessibility and Acceptability Needs of Individuals with AD/ADRD and Their Caregivers

Kingsley, C.1, Stout, A.1, Herrera, N.1, Mittelman, M.2, and Niehaus, J.1 Presented at the 2020 Alzheimer’s Association International Conference Technology and Dementia Pre-Conference, Virtual (July 2020) Background: Commercially available socially-assistive robots (SARs) serve as a promising new assistive technology platform for individuals with early and middle stage AD/ADRD and their caregivers, yet often fail to address the specific […]

User-Centered Hardware and Software Interaction Design Approach to Enhance Accessibility and Utility of Embodied Social Robots for Older Populations

Kingsley, C., Stout, A., Herrera, N., and Niehaus, J. Presented at the Applied Human Factors and Ergonomics (AHFE) Conference, Virtual (July 2020) Rapid developments in artificial intelligence, machine learning, voice interfaces, and robotics, have enabled consumer social and entertainment robots to flood the market, with sales forecast to reach 4.22 million units by 2025. Notably, […]

Technology in the Wild: An Interdisciplinary Discussion on the Intersection of Autonomous Systems and Wildlife Conservation

Kingsley, C. Moderated panel session at the Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems International (AUVSI) 2020 XPONENTIAL Conference, Virtual (October 2020). Autonomous technologies are becoming more scalable, reliable, and ruggedized, fortunately at a critical time in which wildlife and environmental conservation is growing in need, scale, and emphasis. As such, autonomous technologies, including unmanned air and […]

Highly Targeted Non-Lethal Predator Control Approach using Intelligent Prey Decoys Equipped with Aversive Stimuli to Protect Endangered Species from Predation and Provide Data Insights

Kingsley, C., Nussear, K., King, M., and Jenkins, M. Presented at the Wildlife Society 2020 Annual Conference (October 2020) Approximately 42% of threatened or endangered species are at risk due to invasive species. Invasive species exacerbate threats on native species in a variety of ways, including habitat disruption, outcompeting for resources, causing or carrying disease, […]

Drone Swarms: A Transformational Technology

Lynn, S., Koelle, D., and Wronski, R. Aerospace & Defense Technology, May:14-17 2020. Drone swarms are, in every sense, a transformational technology. They can replace humans in dangerous or hostile environments. In sufficient numbers, they can collect information from multiple locations and directions, integrating it to form insights not otherwise available. That information can inform […]

An Ecologically Founded Design for a Targeted Non-Lethal Predator Aversion Device to Protect Agassiz Desert Tortoises from Depredation

News Article Icon

Kingsley, C., and Jenkins, M. The 2019 Desert Tortoise Symposium, Tucson, AZ (February 2019) Desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii), currently listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act (ESA), are experiencing depredation at unprecedented and unnatural rates due to the growing presence of human-subsidized predators in desert tortoise habitat, namely ravens (Corvus corax) and coyotes (Canis […]

Software Adaptation for an Unmanned Undersea Vehicle

News Article Icon

Pfeffer, A.1, Wu, C.1, Fry, G.1, Lu, K.1, Marotta, S.1, Reposa, M.1, Shi, Y.2, Satish Kumar, T.2, Knoblock, C.2, Parker, D.3, Muhammad, I.3, and Novakovic, C.3 IEEE Software, Vol. 36, No. 2 (March/April 2019) Unmanned undersea vehicles (UUVs) are designed to carry out challenging missions in changing environments. To maximize their effectiveness, these vehicles should adapt to system failures […]

Quantitative Assessment of Image Quality for Maritime Surveillance Applications

News Article Icon

Eaton, R.1, Gingrich, I.1, and Irvine, J.2 SPIE Defense + Commercial Sensing, Baltimore, MD (May 2019) Analysis and measurement of perceived image quality has been an active area of research for decades. Although physical measurements of image parameters often correlate with human perceptions, user-centric approaches have focused on the observer’s ability to perform certain tasks with the […]

Autonomous Sounding Observations

Balasuriya, A. Invited Talk at the 2nd International Conference on Oceanography of the Bay of Bengal, Colombo, Sri Lanka (January 2018) This talk presents the autonomous mobile marine meteorological system developed at Charles River Analytics called, Smart Weather Instruments (SWIMS). SWIMS samples the air-sea boundary layer and sends real-time data to remote stations on land. SWIMS […]

Adapting Autonomous Ocean Vehicle Software Systems to Changing Environments

Fry, G., Pfeffer, A., Lu, K., Wu, C., Marotta, S., and Reposa, M. To be presented at OCEANS 2018 Conference and Expedition, Charleston, SC (October 2018). Software systems that can adapt to new requirements not only survive longer but also save overhead otherwise incurred from manually re-writing the software. Most software systems do not have […]

Matching Requirements to Means using Meaning

Hookway, S., Gorman, J., and Rosenberg, B. In Ground/Air Multisensor Interoperability, Integration, and Networking for Persistent ISR IX (Vol. 10635, p. 1063513), International Society for Optics and Photonics (May 2018). The ability to collect an ever-increasing amount of information is outpacing analysts’ ability to interpret and communicate that information in a timely manner. The Army Research Laboratory’s […]

Maritime Border Security using Sensors, Processing, and Platforms to Detect Dark Vessels

Eaton, R., German, S., and Balasuriya, A. IEEE International Symposium on Technologies for Homeland Security, Woburn, MA, (October 2018) Maritime security is critical to national prosperity, but with a large area to be secured and limited resources available, our current maritime situational awareness is not sufficient to secure our borders. This challenge is compounded by the […]

Unmanned Vehicle Onboard Autonomy for Adaptive Ocean Sampling

Balasuriya, A. Invited talk at Naval Research Lab, Stennis Space Center (December 2017) Charles River Analytics is developing a range of technologies to improve the onboard intelligence of unmanned vehicles. In this talk, I will present some of our products developed for marine unmanned systems improving their onboard intelligence. These autonomy modules are implemented on […]

Development of an Autonomous Mobile Marine Meteorological Station – SWIMS

Balasuriya, A., Pennington, T., Scudere, T., McCann, Thayer, R., and Wronski, R. Proceedings of IEEE OCEANS 2017, Anchorage, AK (September 2017). Currently, atmospheric data is collected at the air-sea boundary layer by releasing radiosondes from surface ships or by mounting sensors to aircraft. Sea surface data is measured by either remote sensing or by attaching sensors […]

A Multi-modal Interface for Natural Operator Teaming with Autonomous Robots (MINOTAUR)

Kane, S., McGurgan, K., Voshell, M., Monnier, C., German, S., and Ost, A. Presented at the 8th International Conference on Applied Human Factors and Ergonomics (AHFE 2017), Los Angeles, CA (July 2017) Dismounted squads face logistical problems, including the management of physical burdens in complex operating environments. Autonomous unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs) can help transport equipment […]

A Mission Library for Mission Plan Management

Kane, S., and von Kelsch, E. Presented at the 8th International Conference on Applied Human Factors and Ergonomics (AHFE 2017), Los Angeles, CA (July 2017) When Navy pilots create a new mission plan, they frequently build off of prior missions. Specifically, they duplicate a “master” mission plan that contains official settings, operational specifications, and other information […]

Applications of Sonar Software Tools for Security and Defense – Mosaicking for Hull Inspection, Non-GPS Navigation, and Low-cost Bathymetry Tools

Balasuriya, A. and Eaton, R. Teledyne Marine Technology Workshop, San Diego, CA (October 2015) Teledyne marine sensors provide data that is valuable for many defense and security missions, from navigation to mine countermeasures to maintenance. In this talk, we will highlight work that uses a variety of Teledyne sensors, including multibeam imaging sonars, multibeam profilers, […]

Increasing the Transparency of Unmanned Systems: Applications of Ecological Interface Design

Kilgore, R. and Voshell, M. Accepted to Lecture Notes in Computer Science 8526:378-389, and presented at The 16th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction (HCII), Crete, Greece (June 2014). This paper describes ongoing efforts to address the challenges of supervising teams of heterogeneous unmanned vehicles through the use of demonstrated Ecological Interface Design (EID) principles. We first review the EID […]

A Generalized Extended Kalman Filter Implementation for the Robot Operating System

Moore, T. and Stouch, D. Presented at the 13th International Conference on Intelligent Autonomous Systems (IAS 13), Padova, Italy (July 2014) Accurate state estimation for a mobile robot often requires the fusion of data from multiple sensors. Software that performs sensor fusion should therefore support the inclusion of a wide array of heterogeneous sensors. This […]

Extending Tactical Range for Bomb Disposal using Autonomous Ground Robots

Stouch, D., Ost, A., and Moore, T. Proceedings of the 82nd Military Operations Research Society (MORS) Symposium, Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear and Advanced Explosives (CBRNE) Defense working group, Alexandria, VA (June 2014) Unmanned robotic systems are a vital component of today’s military operations. They are used for operational maneuver (e.g., reconnaissance and IED defeat), maneuver […]

Rapid Assessment of Natural Disaster Effects using Autonomous Aircraft

Stouch, D., Moore, T., and Johnson, J. Proceedings of the 82nd Military Operations Research Society (MORS) Symposium, Infrastructure Analysis, Protection and Recovery (IAP&R) working group, Alexandria, VA (June 2014) Large-scale natural disasters have the potential to create loss of life and property on a large scale. Responding to these incidents is a complex process involving […]

Rapid Aerial Assessment of Post Incident Damage for Enhanced Situational Awareness

Stouch, D. Proceedings of the 2014 Center for Rebuilding Sustainable Communities after Disasters (CRSCAD) International Conference on Disaster Mitigation, Preparedness, Response, and Sustainable Reconstruction: Science and Technology Applications to Mitigate Natural Hazards, Boston, MA (May 2014) Natural disasters such as hurricanes, floods, and forest fires have the potential to create great loss of life and property. […]

Eyes in the Sky: New Technology Gives UAVs a Way to Process High-resolution Video

R. Eaton and L. Cordeiro Defense Tech Briefs, Supplement to NASA Tech Briefs, Volume 7, Number 4 (August 2013) Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are critical to today’s intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) missions, supplying valuable aerial imagery to ground forces. Small UAV systems are a highly flexible ISR solution since they can be quickly deployed […]

Reliable ISR Algorithms for a Very Low Power Approximate Computer

R. Eaton1, J. McBride1, and J. Bates2 Presented at the 2013 SPIE Defense, Security, and Sensing Conference, Baltimore, MD, (29 April – 3 May 2013)   The Office of Naval Research (ONR) is looking for methods to perform higher levels of sensor processing onboard UAVs to alleviate the need to transmit full motion video to ground stations […]

Robust Leader Tracking from an Unmanned Ground Vehicle

Monnier, C., German, S., and Ost, A. Presented at the 2013 SPIE Defense, Security, and Sensing Conference, Baltimore, MD (29 April – 3 May 2013) While many leader-follower technologies for robotic mules have been developed in recent years, the problem of reliably tracking and re-acquiring a human leader through cluttered environments continues to pose a challenge […]

Evaluating the Potential for Using Affect-Inspired Techniques to Manage Real-Time Systems

Neal Reilly, S., Fry, G., Guarino, S., Reposa, M., West, R., Costantini, R., and Johnston, J. International Journal of Machine Consciousness, Volume 05, Issue 02 (December 2013) We describe a novel affect-inspired mechanism to improve the performance of computational systems operating in dynamic environments. In particular, we designed a mechanism that is based on aspects […]

Understanding Optimality in Multi-Objective ISR Mission Planning for Tactical UAVs

Stouch1, D., Johnson2, J., and Tweddale2,, S. Proceedings of the 81.2 Military Operations Research Society (MORS) Symposium, Alexandria, VA, (June 2013) The dependability, persistence, and versatility of unmanned aerial systems (UAS) have made them indispensable assets for providing intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) over the battlefield. As larger constellations of heterogeneous, multi-purpose UAS are tasked […]

Optimizing Infra-Red Sensor Performance for Multiple Unmanned Aircraft

Frankenstein1, S., Stouch3, D., and McGraw3, K. Proceedings of the 2012 Weather Impacts Decision Aids (WIDA) Workshop, Reno, NV, (March 2012) Weather has a significant effect on the dependability, versatility, and effectiveness of the unmanned aerial systems (UAS) that provide intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) over the battlefield. As larger constellations of heterogeneous, multi-purpose UAS are […]

A Monocular Leader-follower System for Small Mobile Robots

Monnier, C., German, S., Ostapchenko, A. Unmanned Systems Technology XIV, Proceedings of SPIE, vol 8387, Baltimore, MD (April 2012). Current generation unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) control systems typically require operators to physically control a platform through teleoperation, even for simple tasks such as travelling from one location to another. While vision-based control technologies promise to significantly […]

Mission Displays to Support the Observability and Directability of Planning Systems

Dudzic, S. and Kilgore, R. Presented at the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Sense and Avoid (SAA) Science and Research Panel, MIT Lincoln Labs, Lexington, MA (October 2011) To develop, evaluate, and effectively compare alternative courses of action during replanning events, unmanned systems operators must consider and rapidly respond to myriad […]

Coevolving Collection Plans for UAS Constellations

Stouch, D., Zeidman, E., Callahan, W., and McGraw, K. Proceedings of the 2011 Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference (GECCO), Dublin, Ireland (July 2011). We are developing a tool called SPARTEN (Spatially Produced Airspace Routes from Tactical Evolved Networks) that generates coordinated mission plans for constellations of unmanned aerial vehicles by allowing the mission planner to […]

Dynamic Replanning on Demand of UAS Constellations Performing ISR Missions

Stouch, D., Zeidman, E., Callahan, W., and McGraw, K. Proceedings of SPIE Defense & Security, Orlando, FL (April 2011) Unmanned aerial systems (UAS) have proven themselves to be indispensable in providing intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) over the battlefield. Constellations of heterogeneous, multi-purpose UAS are being tasked to provide ISR in an unpredictable environment. This necessitates […]

Detecting and Tracking Moving Objects from a Moving Platform using Epipolar Constraints

McBride1, J., Ostapchenko1, A., Schultz2, H., and Snorrason1, M. Proceedings of SPIE Defense, Security & Sensing, vol. 7692, Orlando, FL (2010) One of the principal challenges in autonomous navigation for mobile ground robots is collision avoidance, especially in dynamic environments featuring both moving and non-moving (static) obstacles. Detecting and tracking moving objects (such as vehicles and […]

UAS Constellation Routes for ISR Security Operations: Tier 2 Tactical Spatial Object High-Level Definition Document

Taylor1, K., Fichtl2, T., Stouch2, D., and McGraw3, K. Battlefield Terrain Reasoning and Awareness – Battle Command (BTRA-BC) Army Technology Objective (ATO) Program Document (May 2010). We prepared a High-level Definition Document (HDD) focusing on ISR security missions (including aspects of reconnaissance and surveillance) for unmanned systems based on high level military doctrine and focusing on […]

Predicting the Impact of Heterogeneity on Unmanned-Vehicle Team Performance

Nemhe, C.1, Kilgore, R.2 and Cummings, M.1 Proceedings of the Human Factors & Ergonomics Society 52nd Annual Meeting, New York, NY (September 2008) Several recent studies have addressed the possible impact of using highly autonomous platforms to invert today’s multiple-operators-per-single-unmanned-vehicle control paradigm. These studies, however, have generally focused on homogeneous vehicle teams and have not addressed the […]

Multi-Objective Optimization to Support Mission Planning for Constellations of Unmanned Aerial Systems

Tenenbaum, S., Stouch, D., McGraw, K.,  and Fichtl, T. Proceedings of SPIE Defense & Security, Orlando, FL (2008) Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have proven themselves indispensable in providing intelligence, reconnaissance, and surveillance (ISR). We foresee a future where constellations of multi-purpose UAVs will be tasked to provide ISR in an unpredictable environment. Automated systems will […]

Determining the Impact of Auditory Peripheral Displays for UAV Operators

Graham, H., Fouse, A., Cummings, M., & Pfautz, J. Proceedings of the Fourth Annual Workshop on Human Factors of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles, Chandler, AZ (May, 2007) Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) operators work in an information-rich environment. As a result, there is a desire to improve operator performance by utilizing alternate modalities of information display, primarily […]

Object Detection with Single-Camera Stereo

McBride, J.C., Snorrason, M.S., Checka, N., Reiter, A., Foil, G, and Stevens, M.R. Proceedings of SPIE Defense & Security, vol. 6230, Orlando, FL (April, 2006) Many fielded mobile robot systems have demonstrated the importance of directly estimating the 3D shape of objects in the robot’s vicinity. The most mature solutions available today use active laser […]

An Approach for Multimodal Display Development for UAV Systems

Pfautz, J., Fouse, A., von Wiegand, T., Roth, E., & Fichtl, T. Proceedings of the Third Annual Workshop on Human Factors of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles, Mesa, AZ (May, 2006) Different classes of UAV systems anticipate controlling the UAV from a variety of operational environments, from safe, remote locations to locations under immediate threat of enemy […]

Autonomous Detection of Indoor and Outdoor Signs

Holden, S., Snorrason, M., Goodsell, T., and Stevens, M. R. Proceedings SPIE Defense & Security, Orlando, FL (April 2005) Most goal-oriented mobile robot tasks involve navigation to one or more known locations. This is generally done using GPS coordinates and landmarks outdoors, or wall-following and fiducial marks indoors. Such approaches ignore the rich source of […]

Single Camera Stereo for Mobile Robot Surveillance

McBride, J., Snorrason, M., Goodsell, T., Eaton, R., and Stevens, M. R. CVPR Workshop on Advanced 3D Imaging for Safety and Security, San Diego, CA (June, 2005) Mobile robot designers frequently look to computer vision to solve navigation, obstacle avoidance, and object detection problems such as those encountered in parking lot surveillance. Stereo reconstruction is […]

Single Camera Stereo Using Structure from Motion

McBride, J., Snorrason, M., Goodsell, T., Eaton, R., and Stevens, M. R. Proceedings SPIE Defense & Security, vol 5804, Orlando, FL (April, 2005) Mobile robot designers frequently look to computer vision to solve navigation, obstacle avoidance, and object detection problems such as those encountered in parking lot surveillance. Stereo reconstruction is a useful technique in […]

3D Scene Reconstruction: Why, When, and How

McBride, J., Snorrason, M., Goodsell, T., Eaton, R. and Stevens, M. R. Proceedings SPIE Defense & Security, vol 5422, Orlando, FL (April 2004) Mobile robot designers frequently look to computer vision to solve navigation, obstacle avoidance, and object detection problems. Potential solutions using low-cost video cameras are particularly alluring. Recent results in 3D scene reconstruction […]

Search Path Optimization for UAVs Using Stochastic Sampling with Abstract Pattern Descriptors

Ablavsky, V., Stouch, D., and Snorrason, M. Proceedings of the AIAA Guidance Navigation and Control Conference, Austin, TX (August 2003) For More Information To learn more or request a copy of a paper (if available), contact info@cra.com. (Please include your name, address, organization, and the paper reference. Requests without this information will not be honored.)

Estimating the Ground Plane in LADAR 3D Imagery for Target Detection

Stevens, M. R., Snorrason, M., Stouch, D., and Amphay, S. Proceedings of SPIE, Volume 5094, AeroSense, Orlando, FL (April 2003) For More Information To learn more or request a copy of a paper (if available), contact info@cra.com. (Please include your name, address, organization, and the paper reference. Requests without this information will not be honored.)

RAVE: Real-time Autonomous Video Enhancement System

Ablavsky, V., Snorrason, M., and Taylor, C.J. Proceedings of the International Conference on Image Processing, Rochester, NY (September 2002) The ability to autonomously enhance low-quality or corrupted streaming video data is essential in a number of important civilian and defense scenarios. Applications include visual surveillance, motion picture restoration, and remote control of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. […]

Situational Awareness And Unmanned Ground Vehicles

Goodsell, T. and Snorrason, M. World Defence Systems, issue 8 (December 2002) For More Information To learn more or request a copy of a paper (if available), contact info@cra.com. (Please include your name, address, organization, and the paper reference. Requests without this information will not be honored.)

Situational Awareness of Unmanned Ground Vehicles in Semi-Structured Environments

Goodsell, T., Snorrason, M., and Stevens, M. R. Proceedings of SPIE, Volume 4726, AeroSense, Orlando, FL (April 2002) Situational Awareness (SA) is a critical component of effective autonomous vehicles, reducing operator workload and allowing an operator to command multiple vehicles or simultaneously perform other tasks. Our Scene Estimation & Situational Awareness Mapping Engine (SESAME) provides […]

Enhanced Satellite Constellation Operations via Distributed Planning and Scheduling

Das, S., Wu, C., and Truszkowski, W. Proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on Artificial Intelligence, Robotics and Automation in Space: A New Space Odyssey, Montreal (June 2001) In this paper, we present a system for Distributed Intelligent Planning and Scheduling (DIPS) that helps a spacecraft function as an autonomous agent. A DIPS-based spacecraft receives only […]

Distributed Intelligent Planning and Scheduling for Enhanced Spacecraft Autonomy

Das, S., Wu, C., and Truszkowski, W. Proceedings of the 2001 AAAI Spring Symposium Series, Palo Alto, CA (March 2001) In this paper, we present a system for Distributed Intelligent Planning and Scheduling (DIPS) that helps a spacecraft function as an autonomous agent. A DIPS-based spacecraft receives only high-level goals from ground station operators, and […]

On-Line Situation Assessment for Unmanned Air Vehicles

Hanson, M., Sullivan, O., and Harper, K. Proceedings of the FLorida Artificial Intelligence and Research Society (FLAIRS) Conference, Key West (May 2001) The growing use of simulation for military training, systems analysis, acquisition, and command decision aiding has created a need to develop accurate computational models of human and organizational behavior. While the use of […]

Rover Obstacle Visualizer and Navigability Evaluator

Goodsell, T.G., Snorrason, M., Ruda, H., and Ablavsky V. Proceedings of SPIE, Vol. 4195, Photonics East, Boston, MA (November 2000) The primary data used in ground-based, global path planning for NASA’s Planetary Rovers are stereo images down-linked from the rover and range data derived from those images. The range data are often incomplete: the sensors […]

Agent-Based Simulation Environment for UCAV Mission Planning and Execution

Grecu, D. and Gonsalves, P. Proceedings of the 2000 AIAA Guidance, Navigation and Control Conference, Denver, CO (August 2000) For More Information To learn more or request a copy of a paper (if available), contact info@cra.com. (Please include your name, address, organization, and the paper reference. Requests without this information will not be honored.)

An Intelligent Agent for Supervisory Control of Teams of Unmanned Combat Air Vehicles

Hanson, M.L. (2000) Proceedings of the AUVSI 2000 Unmanned Systems Symposium and Exhibition, Orlando, FL (July 2000) For More Information To learn more or request a copy of a paper (if available), contact info@cra.com. (Please include your name, address, organization, and the paper reference. Requests without this information will not be honored.)

Analysis and Modeling of Fixation Point Selection for Visual Search in Cluttered Backgrounds

Snorrason, M., Hoffman, J., and Ruda, H. Proceedings of SPIE, Aerosense, Orlando, FL (April 2000) Hard-to-see targets are generally only detected by human observers once they have been fixated. Hence, understanding how the human visual system allocates fixation locations is necessary for predicting target detectability. Visual search experiments were conducted where observers searched for military […]