Dynamic Replanning on Demand of UAS Constellations Performing ISR Missions

Stouch, D., Zeidman, E., Callahan, W., and McGraw, K. Proceedings of SPIE Defense & Security, Orlando, FL (April 2011) Unmanned aerial systems (UAS) have proven themselves to be indispensable in providing intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) over the battlefield. Constellations of heterogeneous, multi-purpose UAS are being tasked to provide ISR in an unpredictable environment. This necessitates […]

Adapting Social Science To Influence Operations Planners (…And Not The Other Way Around)

Thornton, W., Carlson, E., and Pfautz, J. Proceedings of Human Social Culture Behavior (HSCB) Focus 2011, Chantilly, VA (February 2011) Effective planning for influence operations requires that planners understand the information environment in which they operate. Comprehensive understanding includes identification of entities that comprise the environment—pertinent groups, arguments, media, and issues in play—as well as awareness […]

Operator Trust in Human Socio-Cultural Behavior Models: The Design of a Tool for Reasoning about Information Propagation.

Carlson, E., Pfautz, J., and Koelle, D. Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Applied Human Factors & Ergonomics (AHFE), Miami, FL, (2010). Models of human socio-cultural behavior (HSCB) are often developed to aid decision makers or analysts by providing insight into current situations and/or by supporting simulations that reveal results of potential courses of […]

Representing Bayesian Games without a Common Prior

Antos, D. and Pfeffer, A. Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems (AA-MAS 2010), Toronto, Canada (2010) Game-theoretic analyses of multi-agent systems typically assume that all agents have full knowledge of everyone’s possible moves, information sets, and utilities for each outcome. Bayesian games relax this assumption by allowing agents to have […]

Interacting Naturally in Virtual Environments

Diller, D., Stark, R., Krisler, B., McDonald, D. Shapiro, R. and Moffitt, K. Proceedings from the Interservice/Industry Training, Simulation & Education Conference (I/ITSEC), Orlando, FL (December 2010) Current methods for controlling one’s avatar in a virtual environment interacting with intelligent virtual agents (IVAs) are unnatural, typically requiring a complex set of keyboard commands for controlling […]

Sources of Meaning for Holistic SSA: Emergent Recognition

Gorman, J. AMOS: Advanced Maui Optical and Space Surveillance Technologies Conference, Maui, Hawaii (September 2010) Decision-makers are confronted with are confronted with deluge of data describing dynamic conditions in the space enterprise. A Holistic Space Situation Awareness (HSSA) environment considers the space enterprise as a whole and provides comprehensive knowledge of conditions that enable effective and […]

Committee for a Review of the En Route Air Traffic Control Complexity and Workload Model

Hansman, Jr., J. (Chair), Alcabin, M., Ball, M., Cummings, M., Dunlay, W., Elias, A., Fearnsides, J., … Zacharias, G TRB Special Report 301: Air Traffic Controller Staffing in the En Route Domain: A Review of the Federal Aviation Administration’s Task Load Model examines the structure, empirical basis, and validation methods of a Federal Aviation Administration model that […]

A Metamodel Description Language for HSCB Modeling

Neal Reilly, S., Pfeffer, A., and Barnett, J. In Schmorrow, D. and Nicholson, D. (Eds.) Advances in Cross-Cultural Decision Making, CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL (2010) Accurate models of social and cultural behavior have the potential to dramatically improve strategic planning, but in order to be incorporated into decision-making, models must be validated. It is important […]

A Method for Generating Narrative Discourse to Prompt Inferences

Niehaus1, J. and Young2, R. Proceedings of the 3rd Workshop on Intelligent Narrative Technologies, Foundations of Digital Games Conference, Monterey, CA (June 2010) Narratives that prompt inferences can be more interesting in that they provide the reader with the opportunity to reason about the narrative world, participating in its construction. These narratives can also be more […]

Dynamic Application and Model Updating Service

Guarino, S., Wu, C., Campolongo, J., and Rundensteiner, E. Proceedings of 2010 International Symposium on Collaborative Technologies and Systems (CTS 2010), Chicago, IL (May 2010). Army Battle Command (BC) applications routinely collaborate to perform BC operations, particularly information collection, management, and analysis. Successful collaboration is highly dependent on timely and efficient access to common authoritative […]

Learning Game Representations from Data Using Rationality Constraints

Gao, X. and Pfeffer, A. Conference on Uncertainty in Artificial Intelligence (UAI 2010), Catalina Island, California (July 2010) While game theory is widely used to model strategic interactions, a natural question is where do the game representations come from? One answer is to learn the representations from data. If one wants to learn both the payoffs […]

An Architecture for Collaborative Human/AI Control of Interactive Characters

Niehaus, J. and Weyhrauch, P. Proceedings of the AAMAS 2010 Workshop on Collaborative Human/AI Control for Interactive Experiences (CHACIE), Toronto, Canada (2010) Interactive characters – widely used for entertainment, education, and training – may be controlled by human operators or software agents. Human operators are extremely capable in supporting this interaction, but the cost per interaction […]

A Metamodel Description Language for HSCB Modeling

Neal Reilly, S., Pfeffer, A., and Barnett, J. In Schmorrow, D. and Nicholson, D. (Eds.) Advances in Cross-Cultural Decision Making, CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL (2010) Accurate models of social and cultural behavior have the potential to dramatically improve strategic planning, but in order to be incorporated into decision-making, models must be validated. It is important […]

Conveying Network Features in Geospatial Battlespace Displays

Godwin, J.A., and Kilgore, R. Visweek 2010, Salt Lake City, UT (October 2010) Advanced battlespace network visualization techniques are required within the modern Air Operations Center (AOC) to improve cross-domain situation awareness and to support planning and decision-making. We present a visualization toolkit to address this need that supports the integration of network health and status […]

Trust and Reliance in Human Socio-Cultural Behavior Models

Farry, M., Pfautz, J., Carlson, E., and Koelle, D. Proceedings of 3rd International Conference on Applied Human Factors and Ergonomics, Miami, FL (2010) Human socio-cultural behavior (HSCB) modeling technologies are gaining traction in operational communities as a means to analyze and predict human behavior at various scales. The National Research Council’s study on behavior modeling and […]

Coordinated Sensing and Data Fusion Using Market-Based Optimization

Farnham, C., Serrin, J., Ouellette, J., Jilcott, S., and Schrage, D. Proceedings from the 2010 National Symposium on Sensor and Data Fusion, Las Vegas, NV (July 2010) We have developed an approach for distributed sensor management that allows multiple sensors to collaboratively allocate and execute sensing tasks, using market-based optimization to make tasking decisions in a […]

Visualization of Temporal Relationships within Coordinated Views

Dudzic, S., Godwin, J.A., and Kilgore, R. Visweek 2010, Salt Lake City, UT (October 2010) In command and control (C2) environments, decision makers must rapidly understand and address key temporal relationships that exist between critical tasks as conditions fluctuate. However, traditional temporal displays, such as mission timelines, fail to support user understanding of and reasoning about […]

Visual Strategies for Enhancing User Perception of Task Relationships in Emergency Operations Centers

Dudzic, S., Godwin, J.A., and Kilgore, R. Proceedings of SPIE Defense, Security & Sensing, vol. 7692, Orlando, FL (2010) In time-sensitive environments, such as DHS emergency operations centers (EOCs), it is imperative for decision makers to rapidly understand and address key logical relationships that exist between tasks, entities, and events, even as conditions fluctuate. These relationships […]

Semantic Search with Self-Maintaining Classes: A Case Study

Patten, T. and Hookway, S. Proceedings of the 2010 International Conference on Semantic Web & Web Services, Las Vegas, NV (2010) Defining semantic classes in terms of the properties of their members is a useful technique in semantic search because such classes are self-maintaining—if new items with the required properties appear, they automatically become members of […]

Probabilistic Evidential Reasoning with Symbolic Argumentation for Space Situation Awareness

Takata, G. and Gorman, J Proceedings of American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) – Infotech@Aerospace, Atlanta, GA (2010) A number of research efforts have investigated approaches and technologies to improve space situation awareness. Prior research included investigation of probabilistic methods using structured models such as Bayesian belief networks. Such approaches have a firm foundation in evidential reasoning […]

Holistic SSA: A New Paradigm

Wagner1, D. and Gorman2, J. 2010 Space Control Conference, Cambridge, MA (2010)   Paradigms for Military Situational Awareness (SA) have influenced the current form of Space Situational Awareness (SSA). SA is traditionally limited to spatial awareness of players in a battle space. The current Space Surveillance Network’s mission emphasis on catalog maintenance and space object tracking […]

UAS Constellation Routes for ISR Security Operations: Tier 2 Tactical Spatial Object High-Level Definition Document

Taylor1, K., Fichtl2, T., Stouch2, D., and McGraw3, K. Battlefield Terrain Reasoning and Awareness – Battle Command (BTRA-BC) Army Technology Objective (ATO) Program Document (May 2010). We prepared a High-level Definition Document (HDD) focusing on ISR security missions (including aspects of reconnaissance and surveillance) for unmanned systems based on high level military doctrine and focusing on […]

SPARTEN: Spatially Produced Airspace Routes from Tactical Evolved Networks

Stouch1, D. and McGraw2, K. Presented at the NATO Common Ground Joint Capability Technology Demonstration, Potomac Institute for Policy Studies, Arlington, VA (August 2010) We prepared and presented a poster at the NATO Common Ground Joint Capability Technology Demonstration event and at the Potomac Institute for Policy Studies. The purpose was to highlight the potential future […]

Probabilistic Relational Models for Situational Awareness

Pfeffer, A. Proceedings of American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) – Infotech@Aerospace, Atlanta, GA (2010) Situational awareness (SA), which is the general problem of trying to determine what is happening in a situation given the available information, has many applications, both military and civilian. Effective SA requires models that are rich enough to accurately model the types […]

Decision Making with Dynamically Arriving Information

Pfeffer1, A. and Kalech2, M. Presented at the International Joint Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems (AAMAS), Toronto, Canada (2010) Decision making is the ability to decide on the best alternative among a set of candidates based on their value. In many real-world domains the value depends on events that occur dynamically, so that the decision […]

Attack Detection in Unattended Sensor Networks

Wu1, C., Monnier1, C., Fry1, G., Girod2, L., and Luke3, J. Proceedings of SPIE Defense, Security & Sensing, vol. 7709, Orlando, Florida (2010) Because sensor networks are often deployed in hostile environments where their security and integrity may be compromised, it is essential to maximize the reliability and trustworthiness of existing and envisioned sensor networks. […]

Operating Next Generation RPA for Irregular Warfare

Zacharias, G. (Chair), Maybury, M. (Vice-Chair), Cooke, C., Cummings, M., Draper, M., Fall, K., Harrison, G., . . . Worch, P. US Air Force Scientific Advisory Board Report SAB-TR-10-03, Washington, DC. For More Information To learn more or request a copy of a paper (if available), contact Greg Zacharias. (Please include your name, address, organization, […]

Evaluating the Creation and Interpretation of Causal Influence Models

Cao1, D., Guarrera1, T., Jenkins1, M., Pennathur1, P., Bisantz1, A., Stone2, R., Farry3, M., Pfautz3, J., and Roth4, E. Proceedings from the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 53rd Annual Meeting (2009) Bayesian networks (BNs) are probabilistic models frequently used to capture domain knowledge for use in computational systems that can reason about states, causes, and effects. […]

A Scalable Architecture for Visual Data Exploration

Decker 1, J., Godwin2, J., Livingston1, M., and Royle1, D. Proceedings of the IEEE Symposium on Visual Analytics Science and Technology (VAST), Atlantic City, NJ (October 2009) Intelligence analysts in the areas of defense and homeland security are now faced with the difficult problem of discerning the relevant details amidst massive data stores. We propose a component-based […]

Modeling Human Reasoning About Meta-Information

Guarino1, S., Pfautz1, J., Cox1, Z., and Roth2, E. International Journal of Approximate Reasoning (2009) Information, as well as its qualifiers, or meta-information, forms the basis of human decision- making. Human behavior models (HBMs) therefore require the development of representations of both information and meta-information. However, while existing models and modeling approaches may include computational technologies […]

Adaptive Boundary Aids in Complex Air Combat Scenarios

Guarino1, S., Liu2, D., Roth3, E., Harper1, K., and Vincenzi4, D. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, (October, 2009) Advances in aircraft operational capabilities have led to a dramatic increase in the operational tempo facing air combat aviators, which has in turn led to SA failures, particularly with respect to secondary information. […]

Displays of Talker Location Improve Voice Identification Performance in Multitalker, Spatialized Audio Environments

Kilgore, R. Human Factors (2009) Whilespatialized audio is known to improve speech intelligibility and voice-identification accuracy within multitalker environments, prior studies have not found any additional benefit for augmenting spatialized audio with visual depictions of relative voice locations. These studies, however, were restricted to small audio environments (four voices), potentially limiting the ability of simple talker location […]

Enabling Robust C2 Systems through Evolvable Human-In-The-Loop Data Fusion

Mahoney1, S., Pfautz1, J., Roth2, E., Powell3, G., Fichtl1, T., Guarino1, S., Carlson1, E., and Farry1, M. Proc. of the International Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium (ICCRTS) (2009) Data fusion systems are being increasingly used to support military planning, decision making, and command and control functions in general. Typically, these systems are designed around […]

Automated Rapid Training of ATR Algorithms

McBride1, J., Lowell1, J., Snorrason1, M., Eaton2, R., and Irvine3, J. Proceedings of SPIE Defense, Security & Sensing, Automatic Target Recognition XIX, vol. 7335, Orlando, FL (2009) Computer vision methods, such as automatic target recognition (ATR) techniques, have the potential to improve the accuracy of military systems for weapon deployment and targeting, resulting in greater […]

Enabling Operator/Analyst Trust in Complex Human Socio-Cultural Behavior Models

Pfautz, J., Carlson, E., Farry, M., and Koelle, D. Proceedings from the Human Behavior-Computational Modeling and Interoperability Conference (2009) Predictive models of human socio-cultural behavior (HSCB) are often developed to aid decision makers by providing insight into current situations and the potential consequences of alternative courses of action. However, in many cases the operational users—the intended […]

User-Created and User-Adaptable Technosocial Modeling Methods

Pfautz1, J., Carlson1, E., Koelle1, D., and Roth2, E. Technosocial Predictive Analytics: Papers from the 2009 AAAI Spring Symposium (2009) Over the course of our studies of how intelligence analysis professionals perform their work, we have observed that the perceived utility of technosocial models varies with the degree that analysts could create and/or adapt a model […]

Complexities and Challenges in the Use of Bayesian Belief Networks: Informing the Design of Causal Influence Models

Pfautz1, J., Koelle1, D., and Carlson1, E., and Roth, E.2 Proceedings from the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 53rd Annual Meeting Bayesian belief networks (BNs) are well-suited to capturing vague and uncertain knowledge. However, the capture of this knowledge and associated reasoning from human domain experts often requires specialized knowledge engineers responsible for translating the […]

CTPPL: A Continuous Time Probabilistic Programming Language

Pfeffer, A. Proceedings of the Twenty-First International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence (IJCAI-09) (2009) Probabilistic programming languages allow a modeler to build probabilistic models using complex data structures with all the power of a programming language. We present CTPPL, an expressive probabilistic programming language for dynamic processes that models processes using continuous time. Time is a […]

Figaro: An Object-Oriented Probabilistic Programming Language

Pfeffer, A. Charles River Analytics Technical Report (2009) We introduce an object-oriented paradigm for probabilistic programming, embodied in the Figaro language. Models in Figaro are objects, and may have properties such as conditions, constraints, and relationships to other objects. Figaro can represent a wide variety of probabilistic models, including directed and undirected first-order models such as […]

Using Reasoning Patterns to Help Humans Solve Complex Games

Pfeffer, A., and Antos, D. Proceedings of the Twenty-First International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence (IJCAI-09) (2009) We propose a novel method for helping humans make good decisions in complex games, for which common equilibrium solutions may be too difficult to compute or not relevant. Our method leverages and augments humans’ natural use of arguments in […]

Market-Based Optimization for Detection and Tracking of Resident Space Objects

Schrage, D., and Farnham, C. Proceedings of AIAA Infotech@Aerospace, Seattle, WA (2009) Future space-based sensors have more complex data processing requirements and thus need more efficient sensor management tools to ensure their effective operation. Moreover, the dynamic, real-time nature of the domain requires a solution capable of adaptive scheduling. Here, we propose a market-based approach to optimize […]

PROLOG: A Multiagent Toolkit for Logistics Planning in Netcentric Environments

Das, S. and Harrison, S. World Scientific/Imperial College Press (January 2008) This paper presents the PROactive LOGistics toolkit (PROLOG), a collaborative agent system and logistics network simulator that allows users to coordinate the transfer of supplies across a dynamically changing logistics network in a fully distributed, netcentric way. A collection of cognitive agents and asset classes […]

Advancement in ATD Prediction Performance

Eaton, R., Snorrason, M., Irvine, J., Vanstone, S. Proceedings of SPIE Defense & Security, Automatic Target Recognition XVIII, Orlando, FL (2008) Automatic target detection (ATD) systems process imagery to detect and locate targets in support of intelligence, surveillance, reconnaissance, and strike missions. Accurate prediction of ATD performance would assist in system design and trade studies, […]

Pragmatic Use of Cognitive Work Analysis in System Design: Extending Current Thinking by Adapting the Mapping Principle

Elm, W.1, Gualtieri1, J., Tittle 1, J., Potter2, S., McKenna1, B. In Bisantz, A.M. and Burns, C.M. (Eds.) Applications of Cognitive Work Analysis, CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL (2008) Cognitive systems engineering (CSE) provides a means by which the interaction between people and machines can be described as they cope with complexity (Hollnagel & Woods, 2005). Cognitive work […]

Designing Visualizations to Support Collaborative Environments

Feinman, A., Farry, M., Kilgore, R., and Pfautz, J. Proceedings of the 8th Symposium on Human Interaction with Complex Systems (HICS), Norfolk, VA (April, 2008) Designing software systems to support teams of decision-makers requires special attention to providing visualizations that support awareness of collaborators, the ability to negotiate meaning, and the ability to coordinate actions. In […]

A Constraint-based Approach to Predictive Maintenance Model Development

Gorman, J., Takata, G., Patel, S.,  and Grecu, D. Proceedings of the International Telemetry Conference 2008, San Diego, CA (2008) Predictive maintenance is the use of inspection and data analysis to perform maintenance when the need is indicated by unit performance. The method can provide significant cost savings to operators while preserving a high level […]

Argumentation-based Negotiation for Automated Sensor Tasking

Gutchess, D., Mow, C., Ho, S.,  and Snorrason, M. Presented at SPIE Defense & Security, Unmanned Systems Technology X, Orlando, FL (April 2008) Information dominance has become an essential component of military operations with tactical thinking focused on the “see first, understand first, act first, finish decisively” principle. Of critical importance is the military’s ability to […]

Cognitive Systems Engineering for Evolvable Human-in-the-loop Data Fusion

Mahoney1, S., Pfautz1, J., Fichtl1, T., Guarino1, S., Carlson1, E., Powell2, G., and Roth3, E. Proceedings of the Human Factors & Ergonomics Society 52nd Annual Meeting, New York, NY (September 2008) Data fusion systems are increasingly being used to support military planning and decision making. Typically these systems are designed around the current capabilities of particular […]

Culturally Aware Agents for Training Environments (CAATE)

Neal Reilly, W. Bayley, C., Koelle, D., Marotta, S., Pfautz, J., Keeney, M.,  and Singer, M. ARI Research Note, U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences, Arlington, VA (April 2008) Recently, the US Army has conducted a wide range of missions within the context of very different cultures and languages. These missions […]

Methods for the Analysis of Social and Organizational Aspects of the Work Domain

Pfautz, S.1 and Pfautz, J.2 Cognitive Work Analysis: Current Applications and Theoretical Challenges, A. Bisantz and C. Burns (Eds.), CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL (October 2008) Methods for the analysis of social and organizational aspects of the work domain are increasingly relevant as new technologies enable users to collect, process, and study entities and their relationships to […]

Applications of Multi-objective Evolutionary Algorithms to Air Operations Mission Planning

Rosenberg, B., Richards, M.  Langton, J., Tenenbaum, S., and Stouch, D. Presented during the Defense Applications of Computational Intelligence (DACI) Workshop at the 2008 Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference (GECCO), Atlanta, GA (2008) Air operations mission planning is a complex task, growing ever more complex as the number, variety, and interactivity of air assets increases. Mission planners are […]

Multi-Objective Optimization to Support Mission Planning for Constellations of Unmanned Aerial Systems

Tenenbaum, S., Stouch, D., McGraw, K.,  and Fichtl, T. Proceedings of SPIE Defense & Security, Orlando, FL (2008) Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have proven themselves indispensable in providing intelligence, reconnaissance, and surveillance (ISR). We foresee a future where constellations of multi-purpose UAVs will be tasked to provide ISR in an unpredictable environment. Automated systems will […]

Model-Based Measurement of Situation Awareness

Neal Reilly, S., Guarino, S., and Kellihan, B. Proceedings of the 2007 Winter Simulation Conference, Washington, DC (December, 2007) Decision making in complex environments in the face of uncertain and missing information is a daunting task. We describe a modeling and simulation based approach to providing planners, analysts, and decision makers with a better understanding […]

Searching for a Fast Alternative to KNN for Infrared ATR

Eaton, R. and Snorrason, M. Proceedings of SPIE Defense & Security, vol. 6566, Orlando, FL (May, 2007) Automatic target recognition (ATR) using an infrared (IR) sensor is a particularly appealing combination, because an IR sensor can overcome various types of concealment and works in both day and night conditions. We present a system for ATR […]

Issues and Challenges in Resource Management and its Interaction with Levels 2/3 Fusion with Applications to Real-World Problems: An Annotated Perspective

Blasch, E., Kadar, I., Hintz, K., Biermann, J., Chong, C., Salerno, J., and Das, S. Proceedings of SPIE Defense & Security, vol. 6567, Orlando, FL (May, 2007) Resource management (or process refinement) is critical for information fusion operations in that users, sensors, and platforms need to be informed, based on mission needs, on how to […]

Disease Outbreak Detection and Tracking for Biosurveillance: A Data Fusion Approach

Blind, J. and Das, S. Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Information Fusion, Quebec City, Canada (July, 2007). In this paper we present an application that utilizes a novel two-level fusion architecture to detect and track disease outbreaks across public health system databases. In the first fusion level, collected data is used to detect […]