SAMPLE: Situation Awareness Model for Pilot-in-the-Loop Evaluation

Mulgund, S., Harper, K., Zacharias, G., and Menke, T.

Proceedings of the 9th Conference on Computer Generated Forces and Behavior Representation, Orlando, FL (May 2000)

This paper describes the design and development of an intelligent agent model for human behavioral representation (HBR) in real-time air combat simulation. The essential feature of this model is its organization around the skilled human’s situation assessment behavior in a complex multi-task environment. Its application is demonstrated for modeling tactical pilot behavior in a four-ship fighter sweep mission. A detailed knowledge engineering exercise was conducted with Air Force pilots to define relevant situation awareness (SA) and decision-making models. These models were inserted into a real-time tactical engagement simulator, along with a mechanism for inter-agent communication. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of using SA-centered decision-making as a framework for modeling tactical piloting behavior. The agents demonstrate the ability to set up and execute intercepts, perform defensive reactions, make kill assessments, and re-engage when necessary. The inter-agent communications mechanism facilitates the development of shared situation awareness, and it provides a command mechanism for the flight leader to direct the behavior of other flight members.

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